The objective of this study was to describe social profile, constraints of swine farmers, and its impact on swine herd size in Tra Vinh Province. This study was conducted in Tra Vinh Province, one of the provinces in Mekong delta, Vietnam. A total of 120 swine farmers selected from small swine farms to commercial swine farms were surveyed with information gathered on 11,466 swine. All of the swine farmers in this study were purposively chosen and interviewed with the questionnaires for data collection. All swine farmers have kept at least 1 swine per farm or had experience at least 1 year for raising and trading swine. The results showed that the majority of farmers were males (57.5%), with the age range of 20-40 years old (47.5%), having more than 10 years of experience (52.5%), having 1-3 members in the family (87.1%), 85% of farmers focused on farm, farmers having livestock farming plus cropping accounted for 55.8%, and farmers having medium farm size with an average of 95-96 heads/farm. In addition, there were 4 constraints that farmers confirmed, i.e., capital (31.6%), disease outbreak (75%), low bargaining power (40%), and the fluctuation of feed price (59.16%). Moreover, experience (p<0.01), education (p<0.01), disease outbreak (p<0.05), and the fluctuation of feed price (p<0.05) had a strong influence on swine herd. It could be concluded that farmers having higher experience and education kept a larger number of swine than others. In contrary, when disease outbreak and the fluctuation of feed price emerge, farmers tended to control their swine herd size.
Assan, N. 2014. Gender disparities in livestock production and their implication for livestock productivity in Africa. Scientific J. Anim. Sci. 3: 126-138. https://doi.org/10.14196/sjas.v3i5.1366
Baidoo, S., H. Yusif, & U. Anwar. 2016. The effect of smallholder livestock production on income of farm households in Northern Ghana. J. Sci. Tech. 36: 8-19. https://doi.org/10.4314/just.v36i3.2
Benjamin, M. & S. Yik. 2019. Precision livestock farming in swine welfare: A review for swine practitioners. Animals 9: 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040133
Chau, L. T. M., P. Lebailly, & T. Q. Trung. 2017. Enhancing farmers’ market power and income in the pig value chain; A case study in Bac Giang province, Vietnam. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 29: 1-9.www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/12/ltmc29221.html. [6 May 2020].
Chilundo, A. G., S. Mukaratirwa, A. Pondja, S. Afonso, Z. Alfredo, E. Chato, & M. V. Johansen. 2019. Smallholder pig farming education improved community knowledge and pig management in Angónia district, Mozambique. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 52: 1447-1457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-02148-x
Do, T. L., T. T. Nguyen, & U. Grote. 2019. Livestock production, rural poverty, and perceived shocks: Evidence from panel data for Vietnam. J. Dev. Studies. 55: 99-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2017.1408795
FAO. 2019. Africa swine fever (ASF) situation in Asia update, 20 September 2019. http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/empres/ASF/situation_update.html. [5 March 2020].
Fualefac, D. H., K. J. Raphae, M.-J. Bime, G. Ndebi, F. Yemele, P. A. Zoli, Y. Manjeli, A. Teguia, & J. Tchoumboue. 2014. Socioeconomic and technical characteristics of pig farming in the urban and peri-urban zone of Dschang - West region of Cameroon. Discourse J. Agri. Food Sci. 2: 11-20.
GSO. 2016. Statistical Year Book of Vietnam 2015. Statistical Publishing House. Hanoi, Vietnam.
Haftu, B., A. Asresie, & M. Haylom. 2014. Assessment on major health constraints of livestock development in eastern zone of tigray: The case of “gantaafeshum woreda” northern Ethiopia. J. Vet. Sci. Tech. : 1-9. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7579.1000174
Hayat, Z., M. Luqman, S. Nasir, E. Ashraf, B. Shahbaz, & Z. Iqbal. 2017. Constraints to livestock production in the Punjab, Pakistan : a case study of District Sargodha. J. Agri. Res. 55: 213-224.
Hong Anh, P., J. J. Carrique-Mas, N. Van Cuong, N. T. Hoa, N. Lam Anh, D. T. Duy, V. B. Hien,V. T. M. Phan, M. A. Rabaa, J. Farrar, S. Baker, & J. E. Bryant. 2014. The prevalence and genetic diversity of group A rotaviruses on pig farms in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Vet. Microbio. 170: 258-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.030
Ibrahim, A. M., X. Shiwei, & Y. Wen. 2013. The impact of social factors of rural households on livestock production and rural household income in White Nile State of Sudan. Int. J. Agri. Food Res. 2: 1-13. https://doi.org/10.24102/ijafr.v2i4.343
Ieda, N., V. B. Quang, N. T. D. Nguyen, L. Lapar, & K. Marshall. 2015. Characterization of smallholder pig breeding practices within a rural commune of North Central Vietnam. Trop. Ani. Health Prod. 47: 1005-1016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-015-0817-4
Lesnoff, M., S. Messad, & X. Juanes. 2010. 12MO: A cross-sectional retrospective method for estimating livestock demographic parameters in tropical small-holder farming systems. CIRAD (French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development). p. 1-51. http://livtools.cirad.fr [6 May 2020].
Lind, D. A., W. G. Marchal, & S. A. Wathen. 2018. Statistical Techniques in Business & Economics. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Education, New York.
Lindström, T., S. S. Lewerin, & U. Wennergren. 2012. Influence on disease spread dynamics of herd characteristics in a structured livestock industry. J. Royal Society Interface. 9: 1287-1294. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2011.0625
Malak-Rawlikowska, A., D. Milczarek-Andrzejewska, & J. Falkowski. 2019. Farmers’ bargaining power and input prices: What can we learn from self-reported assessments?. Social Sci. 8: 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8020063
Mekuriaw, Y. & B. Asmare. 2014. Assessment of pig production and constraints in Mecha District, Amhara Region, Northwestern Ethiopia. Adv. Agri. 2014: 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/329254
Menbere, S. 2014. Livestock production constrains priorities and its determinant factors in mixed farming system of southern Ethiopia. World J. Agri. Sci. 10: 169-177. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wjas.2014.10.4.914
Motsa’a, J. S., H. F. Defang, & C. T. Keambou. 2019. Socio-economic and technical characteristics of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) production system in the humid forest with monomodal rainfall agroecological zone of Cameroon. Int. J. Biologi. Chem. Sci. 12: 2318. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v12i5.31
Muhanguzi, D., V. Lutwama, & F. N. Mwiine. 2012. Factors that influence pig production in Central Uganda - Case study of Nangabo Sub-County, Wakiso district. Vet. World. 5: 346-351. https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2012.346-351
Munyaneza, C., V. Nyiramuhire, I. Mubashankwaya, F. Munyandamutsa, O. Ndisanze, F. Bagaragaza & J. M. V. Mujyambere. 2019. Factors influencing success of artificial insemination of pigs using extended fresh semen in rural smallholder pig farms of Rwanda. Int. J. Livestock Prod. 10: 101-109. https://doi.org/10.5897/ijlp2018.0562
Odhiambo, C. O., C. B. Wasike, & H. O. Ogindo. 2019. Effect of socio-demographic characteristics on Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers’ adaptive strategies to climate change effects. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences. 9: 583-599. https://doi.org/10.4236/acs.2019.94037
Phengsavanh, P., B. Ogle, W. Stür, B. E. Frankow-Lindberg, & J. E. Lindberg. 2011. Smallholder pig rearing systems in northern Lao PDR. Asian Australas. J. Ani. Sci. 24: 867-874. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.10289
Phiri, R. E. 2012. Determination of socio-economic factors affecting piggery business in Balaka district, Malawi. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 24: 1-9. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd24/8/phir24146.htm. [6 May 2020].
Pomar, C. & A. Remus. 2019. Precision pig feeding: a breakthrough toward sustainability. Animal Frontiers. 9: 52-59. https://doi.org/10.1093/af/vfz006
Racicot, M., D. Venne, A. Durivage & J. P. Vaillancourt. 2012. Evaluation of the relationship between personality traits, experience, education and biosecurity compliance on poultry farms in Québec, Canada. Preventive Vet. Med. 103: 201-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.08.011
Roessler, R., S. E. Mpouam, T. Muchemwa & E. Schlecht. 2016. Emerging development pathways of urban livestock production in rapidly growing West Africa cities. Sustainability (Switzerland). 8: 1199. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8111199
Suit-B, Y., L. Hassan, S. E. Krauss, S. Z. Ramanoon, P. T. Ooi, A. R. Yasmin, & J. Epstein. 2020. Exploring the mental model of cattle farmers in disease prevention and control practices. Vet. Sci. 7: 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010027
Tabachnick, B. G. & L. S. Fidell. 1996. Using Multivariate Statistics. 3rd ed. Harper Collins, New York.
Thi Ly, N., T. Nanseki, & Y. Chomei. 2016. Technical efficiency and its determinants in household pig production in Vietnam: a DEA approach. Japan. J. Rural Economics. 18: 56-61. https://doi.org/10.18480/jjre.18.56
USDA. 2019. Vietnam: Grain and Feed Annual Annual report. https://www.fas.usda.gov/data/vietnam-grain-and-feed-annual-3. [6 May 2020]
Van Cuong, N., N. T. Nhung, N. H. Nghia, N. T. Mai Hoa, N. V. Trung, G. Thwaites, & J. Carrique-Mas. 2016. Antimicrobial consumption in medicated feeds in Vietnamese pig and poultry production. EcoHealth. 13: 490-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-016-1130-z
Van Huong, N., T. H. Cuong, T. T. N. Thu, & P. Lebailly. 2018. Efficiency of different integrated agriculture aquaculture systems in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. Sustainability (Switzerland). 10: 493. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020493
Wang, Y. F, J. Huang, & J. G. Zhao. 2017. Gene engineering in swine for agriculture. J. Integrative Agri. 16: 2792-2804. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61766-0
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.