The Prediction of Prolificacy Using Linear Body Parameters and Craniometric Analysis in Etawah-Grade Does

R. H. Mulyono, C. Sumantri, R. R. Noor, Jakaria Jakaria, D. A. Astuti


Etawah-grade goat is a graded  up line between Kacang and Etawah goats, which  well adapted to Indonesia’s humid tropical climate. In order to fulfill national meat requirement, it is necessary to increase the  population by increasing prolificacy. This study was aimed to determine whether the body and head measurements of the Etawah-grade does can be used as selection criteria for  indirect selection of the litter size. The use of does at 3-4 years old (I3 dental condition) from BPTU-HPT Pelaihari and Cordero farms (51 and 55 does, respectively) were based on their specific geographical location  characteristics. The body variables were withers height, hip height, body length, chest width, chest depth, thurl width, rump length, chest girth, and cannon circumference, whereas for head variables were acrocranion–prosthion, basion–prosthion, lower jaw length, head height, tuber facial left-right, nasion–rhinion, entorbitale left-right, euryon left-right, supraorbitale left-right. Bergmann methods  were applied for measuring the differences of body and head parameters followed by the principal component, Fisher’s discriminant, and principal component regression analyzes. All regression coefficients of linear body measurementss were highly correlated to the litter size (P<0.01), with the equation was  Y= 0.015X1b + 0.011X2b + 0.025X3b - 0.002X4b + 0.022X5b + 0.010X6b + 0.022X7b + 0.030X8b + 0.026X9b.  The chest girth was the most elastic body size measurement to the litter size. The increasing of 1 cm of doe’s chest girth would result in the increase of litter size, each of 0.0545 and 0.0417 heads born-1 at  BPTU-HPT Pelaihari and Cordero farms.  Differences in head size and head shape due to the morphometric adaptations cannot be used to predict litter size.


Al-Dawood, A. 2017. Towards heat stress management in small ruminants – a review. Ann. Anim. Sci. 17: 59-88.

Baranowski P., M. Wróblewska, & J. Wojtas. 2009. Morphology and morphometry of the nuchal plane of breeding chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, molina 1782) skulls allowing for sex and litter size at birth. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy 53: 291-298.

Baryshnikov, G. F. & A.Y. Puzachenko. 2011. Craniometrical variability in the cave bears (Carnivora, Ursidae): Multivariate comparative analysis. Quaternary International 245:350-368.

Batubara, A., M. Doloksaribu, & B. Tiesnamurti. 2006. Potensi keragaman sumberdaya genetik kambing lokal Indonesia. Lokakarya Nasional Pengelolaan dan Perlindungan Sumber Daya Genetik di Indonesia: Manfaat Ekonomi untuk Mewujudkan Ketahanan Nasional. Puslitbang Peternakan: 206-214.

Batubara, A., S. Nasution, Subandryo, I. Inounu, B. Tiesnamurti, & A. Anggraini. 2016. Kambing Peranakan Etawah (PE). IAARD Press, Jakarta.

[BMKG] Badan Metereologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika. 2014. Perkiraan Cuaca Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan. [December 12, 2014].

[BMKG] Badan Metereologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika. 2015. Perkiraan Cuaca Provinsi Jawa Barat. http://www. [June 14, 2015].

Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services. 2017. Livestock and Animal Health Statistics 2017. Ministry of Agriculture RI, Jakarta.

Everitt, B. S. & G. Dunn. 1998. Applied Multivariate Data Analysis. Halsted Press, New York.

Gaspersz, V. 1992. Teknik Analisis dalam Penelitian Percobaan. Jilid 2. Tarsito, Bandung.

Gomes, A.C. & A. Valente. 2016. Cranial and body size variation in the Iberian red fox (Vulpes vulpes silacea). Mammal.Biol. 81: 638-643. j.mambio. 2016. 08.005.

Haldar, A., P. Pal , D. Majumdar, C.K. Biswas, S Ghosh, & S. Pan. 2014. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats. Vet. World. 7: 1103-1107.

Hasan, F., Jakaria, & A. Gunawan. 2014. Non genetic factors affecting pre-weaning weight and growth rate of Ettawah grade goats. Med.Pet. 37(1): 8-16. https: //

Hosseini, M., H. M. Shahrbabak, M. B. Zandi, & M. H. Fallahi. 2016. A morphometric survey among three Iranian horse breeds with multivariate analysis. Med. Pet. 39: 155-160.

Kendall, D. G. 1984. Shape manifolds, procrustean metrics, and complex projective spaces. Bull. London Math. Soc. 16: 81-121.

Katz, D.C., M. N. Grote, & T.D. Weaver. 2016. A mixed model for the relationship between climate and human cranial form. American J. Physic. Anthro. 160: 593-603.

Maia, A.S.C., S.T. Nascimento, C.C.N. Nascimento, & K.G. Gebremedhin. 2016. Thermal equilibrium of goats. J Ther. Bio. 58: 43-49. j.jtherbio. 2016.03.012.

Martojo, H. 2015. Peningkatan Mutu Genetik Ternak. Cetakan 1. PT Penerbit IPB Press, Bogor.

Menezes, M., W. H. Sousa, E.P. Cavalcanti-Filho, & L. T. Gama. 2016. Genetic parameters for reproduction and growth traits in Boer goats in Brazil. Small Rum. Res. 136: 247-256.

Mudawamah, I.D., M.F. Retnaningtyas, Wadjdi, Badriyah, S. Susilowati, Aulanni’am, & G. Ciptadi. 2014. Analysis of genetic similarity between PE goats derived from natural service and artificial insemination by RAPD-DNA. J. Ked. Hewan 8: 138-141.

Mule, M. R., R. P. Barbind, & R. L. Korake. 2014. Relationship of body weight with linear linear body measurements in Osmanabadi goats. Indian J. Anim. Res. 48: 155 -158.

Olopade, J. O. & S. K. Onwuka. 2008. A craniometric analysis of the skull of the red sokoto (Maradi) goat (Capra hircus). Eur. J. Anat. 12: 57- 62. https://www. publication/277767229.

O’Mahony. 1986. Sensory Evaluation of Food. Taylor & Francis, NewYork.

Porter, W. P. & M. Kearney. 2009. Size, shape, and the thermal niche of endotherms. PNAS 106: 19666 -19672.

Praharani, L., Supriyati, & R. Krisnan. 2016. A preliminary study on some reproductive traits and heterosis effects of Anglo Nubian and Etawah Grade crossbred does. Proc. Intsem. LPVT: 252-260. http://medpub.litbang.pertanian. index.php/proceedings/article/view/1486.

Rashidi, A., S. C. Bishop, & O. Matika. 2011. Genetic parameter estimates for pre-weaning performance and reproduction traits in Markhoz goats. Small Rum. Res. 100: 100-106.

Ray, D. R. 2016. Investigating the surface area to volume ratio (S/V) in Bergmann’s rule. American Biol. Teach. 78: 429-432. abt.2016.78.5.429.

Rostini, T., L. Abdullah, K. G. Wiryawan & P. D. M. H. Karti. 2014. Utilization of swamp forages from South Kalimantan on local goat performances. Med. Pet. 37: 50-56.

Rout, P. K. & G. Dass. 2015. Factors affecting body weights and milk production traits in Jamnapari goats. Bhartiya Krishi Anushandhan Patrika 30: 46-49.

Schai-Braun, S. C., J. Gander, H. Jenny, & K. Hacklander. 2017. Is reproductive strategy of Alpine mountain hares adapted to different elevations? Short communication. Mam. Biol. 85: 55-59. 2017.02.008.

Sepu´lveda, M., D. Oliva, L. R. Duran, A. Urra, S.N. Pedraza, P. Majluf, N. Goodall, & E. A. Crespo. 2013.Testing Bergmann’s rule and the Rosenzweig hypothesis with craniometric studies of the South American sea lion. Oecologia 171:809-817.

Suryani, H.F., E. Purbowati, E. Kurnianto. 2013. Multivariate analysis on cranium measurements of three breeds of goat in Central Java. J. Indonesian Trop. Anim. Agric. 38: 217-224.

Sutama, I. K. 2009. Productive and reproductive performances of female Etawah crossbred goats in Indonesia. Wartazoa 19: 1-6.

Tokolyi, J., J. Schmidt, & Z. Barta. 2014. Climate and mammalian life histories. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 111:719-736.

Trevor, F., J. Burger, M Balk, I. Khaliq, C. Hof, & J.H. Brown. 2015. Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals. PNAS. 112: 15934-15939.

Wibowo, S. B., E. T. Setiatin, & E. Kurnianto. 2013. The relationship between sperm morphometry and sperm competition in local goats of Central Java, Indonesia. Med. Pet. 36: 179-184.

Yom-Tov, Y. & E. Geffen. 2006. Geographic variation in body size: the effects of ambient temperature and precipitation. Oecologia 148: 213-218. 10.1007/s00442-006-0364-9.


R. H. Mulyono (Primary Contact)
C. Sumantri
R. R. Noor
Jakaria Jakaria
D. A. Astuti
MulyonoR. H., SumantriC., NoorR. R., JakariaJ., & AstutiD. A. (2018). The Prediction of Prolificacy Using Linear Body Parameters and Craniometric Analysis in Etawah-Grade Does. Tropical Animal Science Journal, 41(2), 77-84.

Article Details

List of Cited By :

Crossref logo