• Firda Dimawarnita Program Studi Pascasarjana Teknik Industri Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia
  • Erliza Hambali Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Indonesia


The government has determined that Indonesia is gradually implementing biodiesel as a substitute for fossil
fuels. In September 2018 the B20 rule was established, then B30, and by the end of 2020 it became B50. That
means 20%, 30%, and 50% of fuel is biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) known as biodiesel which is
synthesized from palm oil produces a high yield, up to 95%. However, in practice mixing FAME and diesel oil still
has obstacles such as FAME will separate from diesel and form a gel, this is due to the hygroscopic nature of
FAME and higher density of FAME compared to diesel oil. The decline in the quality of biodiesel is also caused
by changes in some chemical and physical characteristics during storage. To overcome these problems, an
emulsifier or surfactant solution is needed to homogenize the mixture of diesel fuel and biodiesel. Surfactants in
biodiesel not only function as emulsifiers but also provide other added values, such as reducing hydrocarbons,
CO, CO2, and NOx in exhaust gas emissions when compared to without surfactants. Some literature suggests that
35% reduction in hydrocarbon emissions occurs when Jatropha methyl ester has been mixed with surfactant and
nano carbon compared to Jatropha methyl ester alone. The use of nano additives also showed differences in the
stability of biodiesel and surfactants, the addition of nano additives in the form of nano carbon and nano cerium
increased the stability and homogeneity of biodiesel for longer. Thus, biodiesel can be stable for a certain period
of time. This review will show the various types of emulsifiers used in fuel mixing and the time of stability formed.
Keywords: biodiesel, emulsifer, homogenization, palm oil, diesel fuel