• Randi Firdaus Program Studi Teknologi Kelautan, Sekolah Pascasarjana, IPB University
  • Henry Munandar Manik Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, IPB University, Bogor
  • Agus Saleh Atmadipoera Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, IPB University, Bogor
  • Rina Zuraida Pusat Survei Geologi, Badan Geologi-KESDM, Bandung
  • Catur Purwanto Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi Kelautan, Badan Litbang-KESDM, Bandung
Keywords: acoustic impedance, ocean acoustic, seismic oceanography, seismic reflection


Low-frequency acoustic such as marine seismic that has been commonly used in geological mapping is nowadays being developed as tools to map the water columns. This study aims to map thermohaline fine structure in the Northern Maluku Sea. Seismic reflection data from 72 channel along 239 km track line was processed to delineate water column structure. The depth-distance seismic oceanography section clearly showed reflectors at depth of 400 m and 800 m correspond to lower boundary of the seasonal and permanent thermocline layers, respectively. The reflections between depth of 400 m and 800 m were caused by the thermohaline staircase as confirmed by CTD data. Water column reflections showed the presence of internal wave-like structure in the northwestern Tufure sill which has height and wavelength about 102 m and 17 km, respectively. The seismic amplitude in the water column corresponded to the vertical contrast of physical oceanographic parameters such as temperature, salinity, and sound speed. Reflections in the water column could be caused by temperature gradients ranging contrast from 0.03°C/m to >0.20°C/m. The acoustic impedance in the internal wave-like zone was ranging from 0.8 x 106 kg/m3 m/s to 2.06 x 106 kg/m3 m/s. This research revealed that the marine seismic data can be useful for studying the water column characteristics in the Northern Maluku Sea.


Download data is not yet available.


Buffet, G.G., G. Krahmann, D. Klaeschen, K. Schroeder, V. Sallares, C. Papenberg, & N. Zitellini. 2017. Seimic oceanography in the Tyrrhenian Sea: Thermohaline staircases, eddies, and internal waves. J. Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122: 8503-8523.

Christianson, R. 2015. Seismic reflection imaging of thermohaline fine structures in the Southeast Caribbean Sea: implication for short-term ocean circulation dynamics. [Tesis]. Louisiana (US): Centenary College of Lousiana. 40-51 pp.

Fajaryanti, R., H.M. Manik, & C. Purwanto. 2018. Application of multichannel seismic reflection method to measure temperature in Sulawesi Sea. IOP Conf. Series. Earth Environ. Sci., 176(012044): 1-10.

Jackson, C.R. & J.R. Apel. 2004. An Atlas of internal solitary-like waves and their properties. Global Ocean Associated (GOA). 453-464 pp.

Gorman, A.R., R. Vennell, W.S. Holbrook, & R. Frew. 2018. Seismic characterization of oceanic water masses, water mass boundaries and mesoscale eddies SE of New Zealand. J. Geophysical Research: Ocean, 123: 1519-1532.

Holbrook, W.S., P. Páramo, S. Pearse, & R.W. Schmitt. 2003. Thermohaline fine structure in an Oceanographic Front from Seismik Reflection Profiling. J. Science, 301: 821-824.

Huang, X., H. Song, L.M. Pinheiro, & Y. Bai. 2011. Ocean temperature and salinity distribution inverted from combined reflection seismic and XBT data. Chinese J. of Geophysics, 54(3): 307-314.

Manik, H.M. 2011. Underwater Acoustic Detection and Signal Processing Near the Seabed, Sonar System ed. N.Z. Kolev. IntechOpen. 255-374 pp.

Manik, H.M. & S. Hadi. 2010. Application of seismic data for seabed imaging. International J. of Remote Sensing and Earth Science, 7: 76-100.

McTaggart, K.E., G.C. Johnson, M.C.F.H. Delahoyde, & J.H. Swift. 2010. Notes on CTC/O2 Data Acquisition and Processing Using Sea-Bird Hardware and Software (As Available). In, The GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography Manual: A Collection of Expert Reports and Guidelines. Version 1, (eds Hood, E.M., C.L. Sabine, and B.M. Sloyan). 10pp. (IOCCP Report Number 14; ICPO Publication Series Number 134).

Minakov, A., H. Keers, D. Kolyukhin, & H.C. Tangesdal. 2017. Acoustic waveform inversion for ocean turbulence. J. Physical Oceanography, 47(6): 1473-1491.

Nandi, P., W.S. Holbrook, S. Pearse, & P. Paramo. 2004. Seismic reflection imaging of water mass boundaries in the Norwegian Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(L2311): 1-4.

Nugroho, D., A. Koch-Larrouy, P. Gaspar, F. Lyard, G. Reffray & B. Tranchant. 2018. Modelling explicit tide in the Indonesian seas: An important process for surface sea water properties. J. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 131: 7-18.

Papenberg, D., C.D. Klaeschen, G. Krahman, & R.W. Hobbs. 2010. Ocean temperature and salinity inverted from combined hydrographic and seismic data. J. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(L04601): 1-6.

Rahma, A., A.S. Atmadipoera, & Y. Naulita. 2020. Water mass along eastern pathway of Indonesia Throughflow from a CTD Argo Float. IOP Conf. Series. Earth Environ. Sci., 429(012003): 1-10.

Ramdhani, H., H.M. Manik, & Susilohadi. 2013. Deteksi dan karakterisasi akustik sedimen dasar laut dengan teknologi seismic dangkal di Perairan Rambat, Bangka Belitung. J. Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 5(2): 441-452.

Ruddick, B., H. Song, C. Dong, & L. Pinhero. 2009. Water column seismic images as Temperature Gradients. Oceanography, 22(1): 193-205.

Sallares, V., B. Biescas, G. Buffet, R. Carbonell, J.J. Danobeitia, & J.L. Pelegri. 2009. Relative contribution of temperature & salinity to ocean acoustic reflectivity. J. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(L00D06): 1-6.

Sinha, S.K., P. Dewangan, & K. Sain. 2016. Acoustic reflections in the water column of Krishna-Godavari offshore basin, Bay of Bengal. J. of the Acoustical Society of America, 139(5): 2424-2431.

Susanto, R.D., L. Mitnik, & Q. Zheng. 2005. Ocean internal waves observed in the Lombok Strait. Oceanography, 18(4): 81-87.

Tang, Q., R. Hobbs, C. Zheng, B. Biescas, & C. Caiado. 2016. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of temperature and salinity structure of an internal solitary wave packet from marine seismic data. J. Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121: 1-18.

Wang, L., L. Zhou, L. Xie, Q. Zheng, Q. Li, & M. Li. 2019. Seasonal and interannual variability of water mass sources of Indonesian throughflow in the Maluku Sea and the Halmahera Sea. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 38(4): 58-71.

Yilmaz, Q. 2001. Seismic Data Analysis: Processing, Inversion, and Interpretation of Seismic Data Vol I, Invest. Geophys 2nd ed. Tulsa (US): Society of Exploration Geophysics. 2080 p.

Zodiatis, G. & G.P. Gasparini. 1996. Thermohaline staircas formations in the Tyrrhenian Sea. J. Deep-Sea Research I, 43(5): 665-678.

How to Cite
Firdaus, R., Manik, H. M., Atmadipoera, A. S., Zuraida, R., & Purwanto, C. (2021). IMAGING THERMOHALINE FINE STRUCTURE USING MULTICHANNEL SEISMIC REFLECTION IN THE NORTHERN MALUKU SEA. Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 13(1), 151-162.