KARAKTERISTIK FISIK TEPUNG TEH HIJAU YANG DIPROSES MENGGUNAKAN MESIN DISC MILL DAN STONE MILL
AbstractSize reduction could affect the physical properties of green tea powder. The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties of green tea powder processed by different milling methods. A disc mill (DM) with single screw made from stainless steel and a stone mill (SM) made from granite stone were used to produce green tea powder. Water holding capacity, water solubility index, swelling capacity, wettability, extraction yield, dispersibility and dispersion stability, and particle size distribution were analyzed to determine the physical properties of green tea powder. The morphology and shape of green tea powder were also observed using scanning electron microscopy. The DM method produced green tea powder with higher values of water absorption index, swelling capacity and water holding capacity, i.e. 4.57 g/g; 5.17 mL/g; and 6.18 g/g respectively. Green tea powder with SM method had a brighter color with L value of 60.1 and was a fine powder with d50 of 1.4 µm. Based on the above physical properties, green tea powder with SM milling method is more suitable as food products.
Barbosa-Canovas GV, Ortega-Rivas E, Juliano P, Yan H. 2005. Food Powders: Physical Proper-Ties, Processing, and Functionality. 19-88. Food Engineering Series. 1st Edition. XVI 372. Springer US Publishers. New York City, USA. DOI: 10.1007/0-387-27613-0.
Braicu C. Ladomery MR, Chedea VS, Irimie A, Berindan-Neagoe I. 2013. The relationship bet-ween the structure and biological actions of green tea catechins. Food Chem 141: 3282–3289. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.122.
Cuevas-Rodrı́guez EO, MiIán-Carrillo J, Mora-Esco-bedo R, Cárdenas-Valenzuela OG, Reyes-Mo-reno C. 2004. Quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) tempeh flour through solid state fermenta-tion process. LWT-Food Sci Tech 37: 59-67. DOI: 10.1016/S0023-6438(03)00134-8.
de Oliveira A, Prince D, Lo C.-Y, Lee LH, Chu T.-C. 2015. Antiviral activity of theaflavin digallate against herpes simplex virus type 1. Antivir Res 118: 56–67. DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.03.0 09.
Fitzpatrick J. 2013. 12 - Powder properties in food production systems. di dalam buku Handbook of food powders processes and properties. 285–308. Woodhead Publishing Cambridge, UK. DOI: 10.1533/9780857098672.2.285.
Fujioka K, Iwamoto T, Shima H, Tomaru K, Saito H, Ohtsuka M., Yoshidome, Kawamura Y, Mano-me Y. 2016. The powdering process with a set of ceramic mills for green tea promoted cate-chin extraction and the ROS inhibition effect. Molecules 21: 1-12. DOI: 10.3390/molecules21 040474.
Hajiaghaalipour F, Kanthimathi MS, Sanusi J, Rajarajeswaran J. 2015. White tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibits proliferation of the colon can-cer cell line, HT-29, activates caspases and protects DNA of normal cells against oxidative damage. Food Chem 169: 401–10. DOI: 10.101 6/j.foodchem.2014.07.005.
Haraguchi Y, Imada Y, Sawamura S. 2003. Produc-tion and characterization of fine Matcha for pro-cessed food. J Jpn Soc Food Sci 50: 468–473. DOI: 10.3136/nskkk.50.468.
Henning SM, Yang J, Hsu M, Lee R.-P, Grojean EM, Ly A, Tseng C-H, Heber D, Li, Z. 2017. De-caffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome po-pulations and function in diet-induced obese mice. Eur J Nutr: 1–11. DOI: 10.1007/s0039401 7-1542-8.
Hirai M, Yoshikoshi H, Kitano M, Wakimizu K, Sakaida T, Yoshioka T, Nitabaru J, Nakazono K, Hayashi M, Maki, T. 2008. Production of value-added crop of green tea in summer under the shade screen net: Canopy microenviron-ments. Acta Hortic 797: 411–418. DOI: 10.1766 0/ActaHortic.2008.797.59.
Hu J, Chen Y, Ni D. 2012. Effect of superfine grin-ding on quality and antioxidant property of fine green tea powders. LWT-Food Sci Technol 45: 8–12. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2011.08.002.
Kavaz-Yüksel A, Yüksel M, Şat İG. 2017. Deter-mination of certain physicochemical charac-teristics and sensory properties of green tea powder (matcha) added ice creams and detec-tion of their organic acid and mineral contents. Gida/ the J of Food 42: 116–126. DOI: 10.1523 7/gida.GD16072.
Komes D, Horzic D, Belscak A. Ganic KK, Vulic I. 2010. Green tea preparation and its influence on the content of bioactive compounds. Food Res Int 43: 167–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.200 9.09.022.
Lumay G, Boschini F, Traina K, Bontempi S, Remy JC, Cloot R, Vandewalle N. 2012. Measuring the flowing properties of powders and grains. Powder Technol 224: 19–27. DOI: 10.1016/j.po wtec.2012.02.015.
Murtini ES, Prawira-Atmaja MI, Sutrisno A. 2016. Sorghum flour characteristics as affected by solid state and submerged fermentation me-thods. J Teknol dan Industri Pangan 27: 59–67. DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2016.27.1.59.
Ning JM, Hou GG, Sun JJ, Wan, XC, Dubat A. 2017. Effect of green tea powder on the quality attri-butes and antioxidant activity of whole-wheat flour pan bread. LWT-Food Sci Technol 79: 342–48. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.01.052.
Pandey RK, Manimehalai N. 2014. Production of instant tea powder by spray drying. Int J Agr and Food Sci Technol 5: 197–202.
Park D, Imm J, Ku K. 2001. Improved dispersibility of green tea powder by microparticulation and formulation. J Food Sci 66: 793–798. DOI: 10.1 111/j.1365-2621.2001.tb15174.x.
Pasrija D, Ezhilarasi PN, Indrani D, Anandharama-krishnan C. 2015. Microencapsulation of green tea polyphenols and its effect on incorporated bread quality. LWT-Food Sci Technol 64: 289–96. DOI: 10.1016/J.LWT.2015.05.054.
Ramachandraiah K, Chin KB. 2016. Evaluation of ball-milling time on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of persimmon by-pro-ducts powder. Innov Food Sci Emerg 37: 115–124. DOI: 10.1016/j.ifset.2016.08.005.
Rohdiana D, Suganda AG, Wirasutisna KR, Iwo MI. 2014. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory and immuno-modulatory activities of fifteen grades Indonesia orthodox black tea. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 6: 39–42.
Sakurai Y, Mise R, Kimura S, Noguchi S, Iwao Y, Itai S. 2017. Novel method for improving the water dispersibility and flowability of fine green tea powder using a fluidized bed granulator. J Food Eng 206: 118–124. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.201 7.03.010.
Sawamura S, Ichitani M, Ikeda H, Sonoda J. 2012. Foaming property and foam diameter of matcha varies with particle size. J Jpn Soc Food Sci 59: 109–14. DOI:10.3136/nskkk.59.109.
Schuck P, Anne D, Jeantet R. 2012. Analytical Methods for Food and Dairy Powder. 119-189. A john Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication. West Sussex, UK. DOI: 10.1017/CBO978110741532 4.004.
Sharangi AB, Siddiqui W, Dávila Aviña JE. 2014. Black tea magic: overview of global research on human health and therapeutic potentialities. J Tea Sci Res 4: 1–16. DOI: 10.5376/jtsr.2014.0 4.0001.
Topuz A, Dinçer C, Torun M, Tontul I, Şahin-Nadeem H, Haznedar A, Özdemir F. 2014. Phy-sicochemical properties of Turkish green tea
powder: Effects of shooting period, shading, and clone. Turk J Agric For 38: 233–241. DOI: 10.3906/tar-1307-17.
Zhang Z, Song H, Peng Z, Luo Q, Ming J, Zhao G. 2012. Characterization of stipe and cap pow-ders of mushroom (Lentinus edodes) prepared by different grinding methods. J Food Eng 109: 406–413. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.11.007.
Zokti J, Sham Baharin B, Mohammed A, Abas F. 2016. Green tea leaves extract: microencap-sulation, physicochemical and storage stability study. Molecules 21: 940. DOI: 10.3390/molecu les21080940.
Xiao W, Zhang Y, Fan C, Han L. 2017. A method for producing superfine black tea powder with en-hanced infusion and dispersion property. Food Chem 214: 242–247. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2016.07.096