OPTIMASI PROSES PEMBUATAN TEPUNG LABU KUNING MENGGUNAKAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN
Yellow pumpkin (Cucurbita moscata) is a popular plant in Indonesia, but its utilization is limited. It has been reported that the antioxidant activity of yellow pumpkin increased by increasing the drying temperature and immersing the pumpkin in bisulfite solution during processing. The aim of this study was to optimize the processing conditions for the manufacturing of pumpkin flour using Response Surface Mothodology (RSM) to enhance its antioxidant activities. The optimization process was done using Box-Behnken construction. The factorial treatments consisted of immersion in metabisulfite solution, drying temperature, and drying time. The results showed that the scavenging activity as measured by DPPH and ABTS corresponded well to the independent variables based on the multiple regression analysis particularly the multivariate quadratic regression (MQR). Based on the MQR, the determination coefficients (R2) of DPPH and ABTS were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Based on that model, the optimum conditions of pumpkin flour manufacturing were 23.05 min immersion in metabisulfite solution, drying temperature of 85°C , and 11.40 h of drying time. This optimum condition was predicted to yield pumpkin flour having DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities of 90.12% and 94.38%, respectively. Based on the validation data, the optimum condition resulted in flour with antioxidant activities of 80.23 (DPPH) and 86.67% (ABTS), respectively. The quadratic models developed were powerful in predicting the actual values of antioxidant activity of DPPH and ABTS. The accuracy of the models in predicting the antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS were 89.02 and 91.83%, respectively
Adams GG, Imran S, Wang S, Mohammad A, Kok S, Gray DA, Harding SE. 2011. The hypogly-caemic effect of pumpkins as antidiabetic and functional medicines. Food Res Int 44: 862–867. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2011.03.016.
Aydin E, Gocmen D. 2015. The influences of drying method and metabisulfite pre-treatment on the color, functional properties and fenolik acids contents and bioaccessibility of pumpkin flour. LWT-Food Sci Technol 60: 385–392. DOI: 10. 1016/j.lwt.2014.08.025.
Chen HQ, Chen XM, Chen TX, Xu XM, Jin ZY. 2011. Optimization of solid-state medium for the production of inulinase by Aspergillus ficuum JNSP5-06 using response surface metho-dology. Carbohyd Polym 86: 249-254. DOI: 10. 1016/j.carbpol.2011.04.044.
Deshmukh Y, Sharma HK, Kumar N. 2017. Modeling of physicochemical and functional parameters of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) powder using response surface methodology. Int Food Res J 24: 2071-2081.
Dhiman AK, Sharma KD, Attri S. 2009. Functional constituents and processing of pumpkin: a review. J Food Sci Technol-Mys 46: 411-417.
Guo N, Gong F, Chi Z, Sheng J, Li J. 2009. Enhanced inulinase production in solid state fermentation by a mutant of the marine yeast Pichia guilliermondii using surface response methodology and inulin hydrolysis. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36: 499–507. DOI: 10.10 07/s10295-008-0519-2.
Hadiyanto H, Suttrisnorhadi, S. 2016. Response surface optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction (uae) of phycocyanin from micro-algae Spirulina platensis. Emir J Food Agr 28: 227-234. DOI: 10.9755/ejfa.2015-05-193.
Hossain A, Moon HK, Kim JK. 2017. Effect of pre-treatment and extraction conditions on the anti-oxidant properties of persimmon (Dios-pyros kaki) leaves. Biosci, Biotechnol, Bio-chem 81: 2079-2085. DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2017.1378 088.
Ibrahim UK, Austin EA, Salleh RM. 2015. Effect of drying temperature and time on antioxidant and total fenolik content in Garcinia Mangostana Pericarp. Adv Mat Res 1113: 279–284. DOI: 10. 4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1113.279.
Khuri AI, Mukhopadhyay S. 2010. Response surface methodology. WIREs Comp Stat 2: 128–149. DOI: 10.1002/wics.73.
Lutz M, Hernández J, Henríquez, C. 2015. Fenolik content and antioxidant capacity in fresh and dry fruits and vegetables grown in Chile. CyTA-J Food 13: 541–547. DOI: 10.1080/19476337. 2015.1012743.
Myers RH, Montgomery DC, Anderson-Cook CM. 2016. Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization using Designned Experiments. 1-2. Wiley and Sons Inc. New Jersey.
Oke M, Jacob JK, Paliyath G. 2012. Biochemistry of fruit processing.in “Food Biochemistry and Food Processing”, Simpson, B.K. (Ed.), John Wiley and Sons Inc., Blackwell Publishing. Chapter 28th. DOI: 10.1002/9781118308035.ch28.
Peričin D, Radulović-Popović L, Vaštag Ž, Madarev-Popović S, Trivić S. 2009. Enzymatic hydro-lysis of protein isolate from hull-less pumpkin oil cake: Application of response surface metho-dology. Food Chem 115: 753–757. DOI: 10.10 16/j.foodchem.2008.12.040.
Planinić M, Aliakbarian B, Perego P, Greganić K, Tomas S. 2015. Influence of temperature and drying time on extraction yield of fenolik com-pounds from grape pomace variety “Portogi-zac,”. Chem Biochem Eng 29: 343–350. DOI: 10.15255/CABEQ.
Que F, Mao L, Fang X, Wu T. 2008. Comparison of hot air-drying and freeze-drying on the physic-chemical properties and antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) flours. Int J Food Sci Technol 43: 1195–1201. DOI: 10.11 11/j.1365-2621.2007.01590.x
Rakcejeva T, Galoburda R, Cude L, Strautniece E. 2011. Use of dried pumpkins in wheat bread production. Procedia Food Sci 1: 441–447. DOI: 10.1016/j.profoo.2011.09.068.
Salinas MV, Puppo MC. 2015. Optimization of the formulation of nutritional breads based on calcium carbonate and inulin. LWT-Food Sci Technol 60: 95–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2014. 08.019.
Sanchez-Gonzalez I, Jimenez-Escrig A, Saura-Calixto F. 2005. In vitro antioxidant activity of coffees brewed using different procedures (Ita-lian, espresso and filter). Food Chem 90: 133-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.037.
Soong YY, Barlow PJ. 2004. Antioxidant activity and fenolik content of selected fruit seeds. Food Chem 88: 411-417. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2004.02.003.
Vuong QV, Golding JB, Nguyen MH, Roach PD. 2012. Production of caffeinated and decaffei-nated green tea catechin powders from under-utilised old tea leaves. J Food Eng 110: 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.12.026.
Zhang QA, Zhang ZQ, Yue XF, Fan XH, Li T, Chen SF. 2009. Response surface optimization of ultrasound-assisted oil extraction from auto-claved almond powder. Food Chem 116: 513-518. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.071.