In the last few years, multidrug resistant bacteria increased significantly and contaminated chicken carcass through production chain. This study identified the presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobactericeae collected from the environment of chicken slaughterhouses. Samples were taken before slaughtering process from several points of determined locations. From a total of 84 samples tested, 30 isolates were positive of Enterobactericeae comprising of 22 isolates of E. coli, 6 isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca, and 1 isolate of Kluyvera spp. Confirmation test of ESBL/AmpC phenotypic and antibiotic resistant test to 18 kinds of antibiotics were conducted using MASTDISCS D68C commercial kit and Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility test with CLSI (2014) interpretation. All of isolates showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, cefpodoxime, ceftazidime and some isolates show resistance to streptomycin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulphametoxasol, tetracycline, kanamycin, doxycyclin, colistin sulphate, cephalothin, neomycin and polymyxin B. This study demonstrated the existence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobactericeae that were found on the carcasses container, offal container, floors of carcasses, offal handling area, knives and feathers puller machine. The existence of resistant bacteria in the environment of chicken slaughterhouse can lead to occurrence of antibiotic resistant and transmission of resistance genes to other bacteria that could spread to the carcass that was potentially harmful to humans.
Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., Stedt, J., Waldenström, J., Olsen, B., Drobni, M., 2014. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA. Emerging Infectious Disease. 20(5):897-899. doi:10.3201/eid2005.130325.
Costa, D., Vinuéd, L., Poeta, P., Coelhoa, A.C., Matosb, M., Sáenz, Y., Somalo, S., Zarazaga, M., Rodrigues, J., et al. 2009. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta- lactamase- producing Escherichia coli isolates in faecal samples of broilers. Veterinary Microbiology. 138: 339–344.
[CLSI] Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2014. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty-Second Informational Supplement. West Valley (US); Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
Egervarn, M., Borjesson, S., Byfors, S., Finn, M., Kaipe, C., Englund, S., Lindblad, M..2014.Escherichia coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases or transferable AmpC beta-lactamases and Salmonella on meat imported into Sweden. Int J Food Microbiol. 171:8–14.
Forsberg, K.J., Reyes, A., Wang, B., Selleck, E.M., Sommer, M., Dantas, G., 2012.The shared antibiotic resistome of soil bacteria and human pathogens. Science. 337(6098):1107-11.doi : 10.1126/science.1220761.
Gregova, G., Kmetova, M., Kmet, V., Venglovsky, J., Feher, A., 2012.Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry a slaughterhouse. Ann Agric Environ Med.19(1):75-77
Geser, N., Stephan, R., H.¨achler, H., 2012. Occurrence and characteristics of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk. BMC Vet Res. 8:21. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-8-21.
Hammerum, A.M., Larsen, J., Andersen, V.D., Lester, C.H., Skytte, T.S.S., Hansen,F., Olsen, S.S., Mordhorst, H., Skov, R.L., Aarestup, F.M., et al, 2014.Characterization of extended-spectrum β-laktamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli obtained from Danish pigs, pig farmers, and their families from farms with high or no consumption of third- or fourth-generation sefalosporin. J Antimicrobiol Chemother. doi:10.1093/jac/dku180.
Jacoby, G.A., 2009. AmpC β-laktamase. Clin Microbiol Rev. 22(1): 161-182
Levy, S.B., Fitzgerald, G.B., Macone, A.B., 1976. Spread of antibiotic-resistant plasmids from chicken to chicken and from chicken to man. Nature. 260:40–42
Masruroh, C.A., 2016. Tingkat kejadian Escherichia coli penghasil Extended spectrum β-lactamase pada Feses Ayam Ras Pedaging di kota Bogor. M. Si thesis, Bogor Bogor Agricultural University
Marshall, B.M., Ochieng, D.J., Levy, S.B., 2009. Commensals: Underappreciated reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Microbe.4(5):231-238.
Overdevest, I., Willemsen, I., Rijnsburger, M., Eustace, A., Xu, L., Hawkey, P., Heck, M.,Savelkoul, P., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C., van der Zwaluw, K., et al. 2011. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes of Escherichia coli in chicken meat and humans, The Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17(7):1216-22.doi:10.3201/eid1707.110209.
Shrivastav, A., Sharma, R.K., Sahni, Y.P., Shrivastav, N., Gautam, V., Jain, S., 2016.Study of antimicrobial resistance due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in healthy broilers of Jabalpur. Veterinary World. 9(11):1259-1263.doi:10.14202/vetworld.2016.1259-1263.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).