The Possibility of COVID-19 Pandemic in Eliminating Burning Activities: A Case Study at Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatera

Lailan Syaufina, Muhammad Hudzaifah Rihuljihad, Ati Dwi Nurhayati

Abstract

Forest and land fires occur almost every year in South Sumatera Province, including at Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) Regency, mainly due to uncontrolled burning activities. This region has the largest peatland responsible for the adverse haze impacts. The advent of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 has triggered massive consequences across the global communities, including Indonesia. Therefore, large-scale regulations on social restrictions were enacted. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variations in hotspots as forest and land fire indicators before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in OKI as well as to determine the rainfall effects. Daily Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite feeds and rainfall data between January 2018 and December 2020 served as the research materials. Subsequently, the paired t-test and correlation assessment were used to examine the hotspot variations in both datasets, respectively. The results showed significant statistical differences before and during the pandemic. Consequently, social restrictions were assumed to instigate the decline in burning activities. Furthermore, the rainfall demonstrated a vulnerable correlation to the hotspots, indicating that human factor was more pronounced as a fire trigger.

References

Afifuddin, Purwandani, A., Ardiyanto, R., Sumargana, L., & Frederik, M. C. G. (2019). Is land and forest fire in Ogan Komering Ilir, Southern Sumatera, affected by climate change?. IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Geoscience, Electronics and Remote Sensing Technology (AGERS), 2019, 9598, https://doi.org/10.1109/AGERS48446.2019.9034289

Aldrian, E., & Susanto, R. D. (2003). Identification of three dominant rainfall region within Indonesia and their relationship to sea surface temperarure. International Journal of Climatology, 23, 1435–1452. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.950

Ardiansyah, M., Boer, R., & Situmorang, A. P. (2017). Typology of land and forest fire in South Sumatera, Indonesia based on assessment of MODIS data. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 54(1), 012058. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/54/1/012058

Armanto, M. E., Damiri, N., & Putranto, D. D. A. (2018). Performance of fire risk estimates based on soil moisture of selected peat land use. E3S Web of Conferences, 68, 04018. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3aconf/20186804018

Asteriniah, F., & Sutina. (2017). Implementasi kebijakan pengendalian kebakaran hutan dan lahan gambut di Ogan Komering Ilir. Jurnal Abdimas Mandiri, 1(2), 7177. https://doi.org/10.36982/jam.vIi2.338

[BBSDLP] Balai Besar Sumber Daya Lahan Pertanian. (2011). Peta lahan gambut Indonesia skala 1:250.000. Bogor: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian.

Dennis, R. A., Mayer, J., Applegate, G., Chokkalingam, U., Colfer, C. J. P., Kurniawan, I., …, & Stolle, F. (2005). Fire, people and pixels: Linking social science and remote sensing to understand underlying causes and impacts of fires in Indonesia. Human Ecology, 33(4), 465504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-005-5156-z

Fujii, Y., Iriana, W., Oda, M., Puriwigati, A., Tohno, S., Lestari, P., …, & Huboyo, H. S. (2014). Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatera, Indonesia. Atmospheric Environment, 87, 164169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.037

Hendrawan, I. G., Asai, K., Triwahyuni, A., & Lestari, D. V. (2019). The interanual rainfall variability in Indonesia corresponding to El Niño Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 38, 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-019-1457-1

Heriyanto, E., Syaufina, L., & Sobri, M. (2015). Forecasting simulation of smoke dispersion from forest and land fires in Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 24, 111119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.03.015

Indratmoko, S., & Rizqihandari, N. (2019). Burn area detection using Landsat 8 OLI TIRS. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 338, 012035. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/338/1/012035
.
Jayarathne, T., Stockwell, C. E., Gilbert, A. A., Daugherty, K., Cochrane, M. A., Ryan, K. C., …, & Yokelson, R. J. (2018). Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(4), 25852600. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2585-2018

Kiely, L., Spracklen, D. V., Wiedinmyer, C., Conibear, L., Reddington, C. L., Archer-Nicholls, S., …, & Latif, M. T. (2019). New estimate of particulate emissions from Indonesian peat fires in 2015. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19(17), 1110511121. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-11105-2019

Kiely, L., Spracklen, D. V., Wiedinmyer, C., Conibear, L., Reddington, C. L., Arnold, S. R., …, & Adrianto, H. A. (2020). Air quality and health impacts of vegetation and peat fires in Equatorial Asia during 2004–2015. Environmental Research Letters, 15(9), 094054. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab9a6c

Kirana, A. P., Sitanggang, I. S., & Syaufina, L. (2015). Poisson clustering process on hotspot in peatland area in Sumatera. Telkomnika, 13(4), 1376. https://doi.org/10.12928/TELKOMNIKA.v13i4.2272

Meiriza, A., Malik, R. F., & Nurmaini, S. (2017). Spatio-temporal analysis of south sumatera hotspot distribution. International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (ICECOS), 2017, 198201. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECOS.2017.8167133

Nainggolan, H. A., Veanti, D. P. O., & Akbar, D. (2020). Utilization of NASA-GFWED and FIRMS satellite data in determining the probability of hotspots using the fire weather index (FWI) in Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatera. International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences (IJReSES), 17(1), 8598. https://doi.org/10.30536/j.ijreses.2020.v17.a3202

Novitasari, N., Sujono, J., Harto, S., Maas, A., & Jayadi, R. (2019). Drought index for peatland wildfire management in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia during El Niño phenomenon. Journal of Disaster Research, 14(7), 939948. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2019.p0939

Nurdiana, A., & Risdiyanto, I. (2015). Indicator determination of forest and land fires vulnerability using Landsat-5 TM data (Case study: Jambi Province). Procedia Environmental Sciences, 24, 141151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.03.019

Nurdiati, S., Sopaheluwakan, A., Agustina, A., & Septiawan, P. (2019). Multivariate analysis on Indonesian forest fire using combined empirical orthogonal function and covariance matrices. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 299(1), 012048. https:doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/299/1/012048

Nurhalimah, S. (2020). Covid-19 dan hak masyarakat atas kesehatan. SALAM Jurnal Sosial & Budaya Syar’i, 7(6), 543554. https://doi.org./10.15408/sjsbs.v7i6.15324

Nurhayati, A. D., Saharjo, B. H., Sundawati, L., Syartinillia, & Vetrita, Y. (2020). Behaviour and perception of community on peat fire in Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan, 10(4), 568583. https://doi.org/10.29244/jpsl.10.4.568-583

Pasaribu, S. M., & Friyatno, S. (2012). Memahami penyebab kebakaran hutan dan lahan serta upaya penanggulangannya: Kasus di Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. SOCA: Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, [S.l.], 123.

Prasasti, I., Boer, R., Ardiansyah, M., Buono, A., Syaufina, L., & Vetrita, Y. (2012). Analisis hubungan kode-kode SPBK (Sistem Peringkat Bahaya Kebakaran) dan hotspot dengan kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Kalimantan Tengah. Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan, 2(2), 101. https://doi.org/10.29244/jpsl.2.2.101

Prayoga, M. B. R., & Yananto, A. (2017). Analisis korelasi kerapatan titik api dengan curah hujan di Pulau Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Jurnal Sains & Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca, 18(1), 1724. https://doi.org/10.29122/jstmc.v18i1.2037

Putra, E. I. (2011). The effect of the precipitation pattern of the dry season on peat fire occurrence in the Mega Rice Project area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropics, 19(4), 145156. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.19.145

Riedel, S., Hobden, J. A., Miller, S., Morse, S. A., Mietzner, T. A., Detrick, B., …, & Mejia, R. (Eds.). (2019). Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's medical microbiology (28th ed.). McGraw Hill. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2629§ionid= 217768734

Rosanti, D. (2014). Potensi hutan rawa gambut sebagai sylvofishery. Sainmatika, 11(2), 818. https://doi.org/10.31851/sainmatika.v11i2.425

Sitanggang, I. S., Roseli, S., & Syaufina, L. (2018). Spatial co-location patterns on weather and forest fire data. International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science (IJITCS), 10(9), 1320. https://doi.org/10.5815/ijitcs.2018.09.02

Syaufina, L. (2008). Kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Indonesia: Perilaku api, penyebab, dan dampak kebakaran. Malang: Bayumedia.

Syaufina, L. (2018). Forest and land fires in Indonesia: Assessment and mitigation. In P. Saumi, D. Kim, & C. Ghosh (Eds.), Integrating disaster science and management: Global case studies in mitigation and recovery (pp. 109121). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812056-9.00008-7

Syaufina, L., Nuruddin, A. A, Basharuddin, J., See, L. F., & Yusof, M. R. M. (2004). The effects of climatic variations on peat swamp forest conditions and peat combustibility. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 10(2), 114.

Syaufina, L, & Sitanggang, I. S. (2018). Peatland fire detection using spatio-temporal data mining analysis in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 30(2), 154162. http://www.jstor.org/stable/26409964

Sze, J. S., Jefferson, & Lee, J. S. H. (2019). Evaluating the social and environmental factors behind the 2015 extreme fire event in Sumatera, Indonesia. Environmental Research Letters, 14(1), 015001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aaee1d

Usman, M., Sitanggang, I. S., & Syaufina, L. (2015). Hotspot distribution analyses based on peat characteristics using density-based spatial clustering. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 24, 132140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.03.018

Usup, A., Hashimoto, Y., Takahashi, H., Hayasaka, H. (2004). Combustion and thermal characteristics of peat fire in tropical peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropics, 14(1), 119. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.14.1

Waluyo, E. A., Ulya, N. A., Nurlia, A., Martin, E., & Rahmat, M. (2020). Community adaptation to the “zero burnings” policy on peatlands: Cases in Rengas Merah-Riding and Senasih Mulya-Kayu Labu, Ogan Komering Ilir District, South Sumatera Province. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 533, 012009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/533/1/012009

Wijaya, P. T., Sitanggang, I. S., & Syaufina, L. (2016). Density based clustering of hotspots in peatland with road and river as physical obstacles. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 3(3), 714720. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v3.i2.pp714-720

Zulfah, A. A., Howitzerni, R. C., Abdurrahim, A. Y., Ramli, M., & Rahiem, M. D. H. (2020). Rural livelihood strategies in Sumatra after the implementation of ASEAN 2020 haze free policy’ (Case study: Lebung Gajah Community, Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 572, 012047. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/572/1/012047

Authors

Lailan Syaufina
lailans@apps.ipb.ac.id (Primary Contact)
Muhammad Hudzaifah Rihuljihad
Ati Dwi Nurhayati
SyaufinaL., Hudzaifah RihuljihadM., & Dwi NurhayatiA. (2021). The Possibility of COVID-19 Pandemic in Eliminating Burning Activities: A Case Study at Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatera. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 27(3), 165. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.27.3.165

Article Details

Scenarios of Land-Use Change in Protected Forest of Wosi Rendani Manokwari District, West Papua, Indonesia

Mahmud Mahmud, Wahyudi Wahyudi, Heru Joko Budirianto, Bambang Nugroho
Abstract View : 961
Download :1151

An Institutional Model of Transboundary Watershed Management Toward Sustainable Development

Werenfridus Taena, Lala Mulyowibowo Kolopaking, Bambang Juanda, Baba Barus, Rizaldi Boer
Abstract View : 897
Download :762

Towards State Hegemony Over Agricultural Certification: From Voluntary Private to Mandatory State Regimes on Palm Oil in Indonesia

Muhammad Alif Kaimuddin Sahide, Sarah Burns, Agung Wibowo, Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat, Lukas Giessen
Abstract View : 3195
Download :1115

Assessing Conformity of Scientific Voices and Local Needs to Combat Forest Fire in Indonesia

Meti Ekayani, Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat, Bambang Hero Saharjo, James Thomas Erbaugh
Abstract View : 595
Download :1015