Biodiversity of Plants and Birds in Reclamation Area of PT Bukit Asam, Muara Enim, South Sumatera

Dimaz Danang Al-Reza, Lilik Budi Prasetyo, Rahmad Hermawan


Mining activities will reduce species diversity, whereas forest reclamation would restore the species diversity, which was previously a forested area. This research was conducted in PT Bukit Asam area, in 6 locations, and in natural forest, as a comparison. The objective of this research was identifying biodiversity of plants and birds in a reclamation area which had different planting years through an approach of diversity indices of vegetation and birds (H'), index of species similarity of plants and birds, and leaf area index (LAI). Research results showed that secondary succession occurred in the reclamation area. The value of plant diversity index in reclamation area of 1995 planting year exhibited diversity values which approached that of natural forest, except for undergrowth vegetation. Index of plant species similarity between reclamation area and natural forest did not show any presence of similar communities, but the reclamation area of 1995 planting year exhibited values of plant species similarity indices at all strata, ranging from undergrowth vegetation, seedlings, saplings, poles, and trees. Index of bird diversity in reclamation area of planting the year 1998 possessed the highest value and approached that of natural forest, namely 2.43. Reclamation area of 1998 planting year possessed the highest similarity index of bird species, namely 50%. Reclamation area of the planting year 1995 possessed LAI which approached natural forest, namely 1.89.  The older the planting year, the larger was the value of LAI, except for the disturbed reclamation area, namely reclamation area of 1996 planting year and reclamation area of 2001 planting year.


Ardhana IPG. 2010. The conservation of biodiversity for mining activities in the forest areas. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia 15(2):71–77.

Ariani, Sudhartono A, Wahid A. 2014. Biomass and carbon of ground cover plants in lake tambing at lore lindu national park. Warta Rimba 2(1):164–170.

Bengen DG. 2000. Teknik Pengambilan Contoh dan Analisis Data Biofisik Sumber daya Pesisir. Bogor: Bogor Agricultural University.

Badaruddin E. 2006. Keragaman dan habitat satwa burung di taman wisata alam Plawangan Turgo – Yogyakarta. Jurnal Agroforestri 1(2):27–35.

Bibby C, Martin J, Stuart M. 2000. Expedition Field Techniques. Bogor: Birdlife Indonesia Programme.

Das M, Chatterjee P, Roy R. 2015. Soil and vegetation characteristics associated with mine overburdens of an opencast coalmine area of
Burdwan district, West Bengal, India. International Journal of Advanced Research 3:1482–1487.

Fitriana YR. 2006. Diversity and abundance of macrozoobenthos in mangrove rehabilitation forest in great garden forest Ngurah Rai Bali. Biodiversitas 7(1):67–72.

Gardingen V, Jackson PR, Hernandez-Daumas GE, Russell S, Sharp GL. 1999. Leaf area index estimates obtained for clumped canopies using hemispherical photography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 94(3–4):243–257.

Handoko I, Kodarsih T, Ariyani A. 2010. Canopy extinction coefficient and solar radiation use efficiency of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum l.) of granola cultivar grown in galudra, Cianjur, West Java. Jurnal Agromet 24(2):27–32.

Indriyanto. 2006. Forest Ecology. Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara.

Hadisiswoyo P, Saraan M, Ardi R, Azhari A, Daley P, Wagiman. 2014. The Field Guide of Restoration Tropical Forests in Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Orangutan Sumatera Lestari-Orangutan Information Centre (YOSL-OIC) dan Tropical Forest Conservation Action (TFCA) Sumatera.

Hilwan I, Mulyana D, Pananjung WG. 2013. The species diversity of ground cover at sengon buto (Enterobilium cyclocarpum griseb.) and trembesi (Samanea saman merr.) plantation in PT Kitadin's post mining land, Embalut, Kutai Kartanagara, East Borneo. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika 4(1):6–10.

Husain Z, Dharmono, Kaspul. 2010. Type and birds density in the region agropolitan in Madastana district Barito Kuala. Jurnal Wahana-Bio 4:47–58.

Jokimaki K, Jokimaki MLK. 2003. Spatial similarity of urban bird communities: a multiscale approach. Journal of Biogeography 30:1183–1193. j.1365-2699.2003.00896.x

Kominami Y, Sato T, Takeshita K, Manabe T, Endo A, Noma N. 2003. Classification of bird-dispersed plants by fruiting phenology, fruit size, and growth form in a primary lucidophyllous forest: an analysis, with implications for the conservation of fruitbird interactions. Ornithol Science 2:3–2.

Krebs CJ. 1978. Ecological Methodology. New York: Harper dan Row Publisher.

Kunarso A, Azwar F. 2013. Understorey diversity on several plantation forest stands in Benakat, South Sumatera. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman10(2):85–98.

Law of The Republic of Indonesia Number 4 of 2009 Concerning Mineral and Coal Mining.

Magurran AE. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Malden: Blackwell.

Mawazin, Subiakto. 2013. Species diversity and composition of logged over peat swamp forest in riau. Journal Forest Rehabilitation1(1):59–73.

Morisette JT, Baret F, Privette JL, Myneni RB, Nickeson J, Garrigues S, Shabanov N, Weiss M, Fernandes R, Leblanc S, Kalacska M, Azofeifa GAS,

Chubey M, Rivard B, Stenberg P, Rautiainen M, Voipio P, Manninen T, Pilant AN, Lewis TE, Liames JS, Colombo R, Meroni M, Busetto L, Cohen W, Turner DP, Warner ED, Petersen GW, Seufert G, Cook R. 2006. Validation of global moderate-resolution LAI products: a framework proposed within the CEOS land product validation subgroup. IEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44:1–14.

Mukhtar AS, Heriyanto NM. 2012. Plant succession at ex coal mine area in East Kalimantan. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam 9(4):341–350. 09/ TGRS.2006.872529.

Odum EP. 1993. Base of Ecology. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.
Puspaningsih N, Murtilaksono K, Sinukaban N, Jaya INS, Setiadi Y. 2010. Reforestation achievement monitoring at mining area through soil index model. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika 16(2):53–62.

Rich PM. 1990. Characterizing plant canopies with hemispherical photograph. Remote Sensing Reviews5:13–29. 32119.

Risdiyanto I, Setiawan R. 2007. Energy balance method for determining leaf area index land using multi spectral satellite imaginary. Jurnal Agromet Indonesia 21(2):27–38.

Riswan, Harun U, Irsan C. 2015. Flora diversity at post-coal mining reclamation in the PTBA South Sumatera. Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan 22(2):160–168.

Saharjo BH, Gago C. 2011. Natural succession after fires at secondary forest in Fatuquero Village, Railaco District, Ermera regency-Timor Leste. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika 2(1):40–45.

Salek M. 2012. Spontaneous succession on opencast mining sites: implication for bird biodiversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:1417–1425.

Soerianegara I, Indrawan A. 2012. Ekologi Hutan Indonesia. Bogor: Bogor Agricultural University.

Sprintsin M, Karnieli A, Berliner P, Rotenberg E, Yakir D, Cohen S. 2009. Evaluating the performance of the MODIS leaf area index (LAI) product over a Mediterranean dryland planted forest. International Journal of
Remote Sensing 30(19):5061–5069. 01431160903032885.

Suwarsono, Arief M, Hidayat, Sulma S, Suryo HN, Sulyantoro H, Setiawan KT. 2011. Pengembangan metode penentuan indeks luas daun pada penutupan lahan hutan dari data satelit penginderaan jauh SPOT-2. Jurnal Penginderaan Jauh 8:50–59.

Tews J, Brose U, Grimm V, Tielborger K, Wichmann MC, Schwager M, and Jeltsch F. 2004. Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: The importance of keystone structure. Journal of Biogeography 31:79–92.

Turner DP, Cohen WB, Kennedy RE, Fassnacht KS, Briggs JM. 1999. Relationships between leaf area index and Landsat TM spectral vegetation indices across three temperate zone sites. Remote Sensing of Environment 70:52–68. 00057-7.

Watalee H, Ningsih S, Ramlah S. 2013. Birds density in swamp forest Saembawalati Tomui Karya Village in Mori Atas District Morowali. Warta Rimba 1(1):1–8.

Wirdateti, Setyorini LE, Suparno, Handayani TH. 2004. Feeding and habitat of slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang) in Badui Tribe conservation forest, Rangkasbitung-South Banten. Biodiversitas 6(1):45–49. 13057/biodiv/d060109.


Dimaz Danang Al-Reza (Primary Contact)
Lilik Budi Prasetyo
Rahmad Hermawan
Al-RezaD. D., PrasetyoL. B., & HermawanR. (2016). Biodiversity of Plants and Birds in Reclamation Area of PT Bukit Asam, Muara Enim, South Sumatera. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 22(3), 158. Retrieved from

Article Details

Structure and Dominance of Species in Mangrove Forest on Kutai National Park, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Muli Edwin, Iin Sumbada Sulistyorini, Erny Poedjirahajoe, Lies Rahayu Wijayanti Faida, Ris Hadi...
Abstract View : 517
Download :574