Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><img src="/public/site/images/admingizipangan/COVER_LUAR_JGP-_Juli_2017-931.jpg" alt="" width="178" height="211" align="left"><em><strong>Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan </strong></em>-in English translated to Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Food- is the official publication of The Food and Nutrition Society of Indonesia in collaboration with the Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology (FEMA), Bogor Agricultural University. This journal focuses its’ main research in the fields of nutrition and food. Scientific peer-reviewed articles are published routine, three times per year in March, July, and November. According to the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education Decree Number 12/M/Kp/II/2015, the Journal of Nutrition and Food is <a href="https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BzgZ-1oM5jwVQzgxSi1LMEZ3Sm8/view" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>ACCREDITED</strong></a> since February 11th, 2015 (including the issue number submitted in the accreditation process starting from&nbsp;Volume 7, Number 2, July 2012).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify">The <em>Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan</em>&nbsp;has been indexed in&nbsp;<strong>Clarivate Analytics products (Emerging Sources Citation Index), DOAJ, Science and Technology Index (SINTA), Indonesian Publication Index (IPI),&nbsp;</strong><strong>Google Scholar,&nbsp;</strong>and other scientific databases.&nbsp;The Journal&nbsp;also used Similarity Check to prevent any suspected plagiarism in the manuscripts.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify">The <em>Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan</em> has a competent Board of Editors in the fields of nutritional and food sciences. The board consists of a variety of institutions related to food and nutrition. This Journal is managed with high commitment despite the number of challenges that are faced. The Editorial team welcomes lecturers, researchers, and other scientists to publish their scientific articles here in Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Food.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><a href="http://issn.pdii.lipi.go.id/issn.cgi?daftar&amp;1180425503&amp;1&amp;&amp;">P-ISSN: 1978-1059&nbsp;</a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1414463903">E-ISSN: 2407-0920</a></p> Food and Nutrition Society of Indonesia en-US Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan 1978-1059 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following this term:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that the copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to<em> Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan </em>(Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Food). The statement to release the copyright to<em> Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan </em>(Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Food) is stated in Authors Statement Letter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.</p> Assessment of Sodium Content of Processed Food Available in Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan/article/view/36083 <p style="text-align: left;">This study was conducted to identify the sodium content in processed food and determine the proportion of products that meet the World Health Organization (WHO) global sodium benchmark criteria. Spesific concern was placed for sodium content in instant noodles. A comparative analysis was conducted to determine the relevance between the WHO and Indonesian Food and Drug Authority (Indonesian FDA) benchmarks in limiting sodium in instant noodles. Data on sodium levels (mg/100 g) of processed food was obtained from the register in the Indonesian FDA, Directorate of Processed Food Registration for 2019 to 2020. There were 3,850 products, consisting of 3,036 Local Products (LP) and 814 Imported Products (IP). These products were grouped into seven food categories and 18 types of food. The highest sodium content was found in chili sauce at 2,254,06 mg/100 g, and the lowest was in wafers at 218.64 mg/100 g. Overall, 2,538 of all products (66.56%) did not meet the sodium criteria based on the WHO benchmark. While for instant noodles, only 14.2% of the products met the sodium criteria based on the Indonesian FDA regulations and only 7.4% comply to the WHO sodium benchmark. The Cohen’s Kappa test showed a strong agreement (K=0.650; 95% CI; p=0.00, strong) between the two regulations in limiting sodium levels in instant noodles. This study provides an overview of sodium levels in processed food in Indonesia. The sodium content in most products including instant noodles, as one of the most frequently consumed products, are still above the recommended value. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sodium benchmarkof wider range of food categories in national level that might contribute to sodium intake, as well as for instant noodles. In order to achieve this goal, involvement of multi stakeholder among government, food industry and expert are also needed to deliver effective policies regarding sodium intake concerns.</p> Nurani Istiqomah Made Astawan Nurheni Sri Palupi Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 16 3 129 138 10.25182/jgp.2021.16.3.129-138 Nutrition Fact Panel Use and its Association to Diet Quality among University Students in Universitas Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan/article/view/36515 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study was to assess the association between Nutrition Fact Panel (NFP) use and diet quality among university students. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted in 2019 among 172 college students living in dormitory of Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. Data about socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, food preparation, NFP use and nutritional knowledge were collected through interview using structured questionnaire. Nutritional status was obtained by direct height and weight measurement. Diet quality was measured using Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) score, derived from 3x24 hours recall. Finding of this study showed that the characteristics of NFP users and non-users were not differed significantly except for nutritional knowledge in which NFP users were 1.852 times more likely to have good knowledge than NFP non-users (p&lt;0.05; 95% CI:1.009−3.396). The median total diet quality score was categorized as low (44 out of 100). There was no association between NFP use and total diet quality score even after controlling for possible confounder. However, the exploration in each component of diet quality measurement showed adequacy score of calcium was significantly higher in NFP users than non-users (p&lt;0.05). NFP use also positively associated to total variety score (β=0.985; p&lt;0.05). Future nutrition interventions could focus on enhancing the use and understanding of NFP among university students</p> Sarah Christy Helda Khusun Dian Novita Chandra Diana Sunardi Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 16 3 139 148 10.25182/jgp.2021.16.3.139-148 Calcium Bioavailability and Serum Calcium Level in Pregnant Rats After Administration of Milk-Based Drinks Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan/article/view/37289 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to evaluate calcium bioavailability through serum calcium level in pregnant rats treated with two Milk-Based Drinks (MBD) containing Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), i.e <em>Lactobacillus Casei Shirota Strain</em> (LcS) drink, and Four Strains Bacteria (FS) (<em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii</em> subp. <em>bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophiles</em>). It was a completely randomized experimental study using 24 Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were divided into one negative control group with a normal nutritional status (A0) and three undernourished groups. The undernourished groups were divided into one positive control group (A1), one group receiving MBD containing LcS group (A2), and another group receiving MBD containing FS (A3). All rats received high protein diets during pregnancy. The intervention was started in early pregnancy (D0) until 19 days of pregnancy (D19). Blood samples were collected at the D0 and D19. No significant differences in food intake were found among the rats in all groups. Administration of MBD containing LAB in A2 and A3 showed significant (p&lt;0.05) increment of calcium bioavailability (30.79±6.88%; 20.44±9.04%). Both MBDs treatment containing LAB showed no significant difference in serum calcium bioavailability (p&gt;0.05). The results suggest that MBDs containing LAB are useful in enhancing calcium bioavailability.</p> Yuni Nurwati Hardinsyah Hardinsyah Sri Anna Marliyati Mokhamad Fahrudin Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 16 3 149 158 10.25182/jgp.2021.16.3.149-158 Diet Quality and Growth Status of Children Aged Two to Six Years at Tuba Island, Langkawi, Malaysia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan/article/view/36259 <p>This study aimed to determine the prevalence of undernutrition, diet quality and its associated factors among children aged two to six years at Tuba Island. A total of 67 children paired with their mother or caregiver were participated in this study. A questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements and two days of 24-hours dietary recall was administered. The Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to assess the children’s diet quality. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 22.4%, 20.8% and 17.9%, respectively. Mean total HEI score was 37.1±6.3, which indicate poor diet. The children had low mean scores for vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy products as well as legumes. For socio-demographic factors, number of children per household was associated with diet quality. This study points out that overall low dietary score among these children and their diet quality had no association with their growth status. The low diet quality was prevalent; thus it did not contribute to differences in growth status among these children. Therefore, it is suggested further intervention should be taken to improve the nutrition quality of these children.</p> Nor Wasiqaho Salleh Syahrul Bariah Hamid Norazmir Md Nor Farhanah Ahmad Shuhaimi Mazuin Kamarul Zaman Nazrul Hadi Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 16 3 159 168 10.25182/jgp.2021.16.3.159-168 Physical Activity, Food Consumption, and Breakfast among Normal and Overweight Elementary School Children in Bogor during Covid-19 Pandemic https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan/article/view/36361 <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of this study was to analyze differences in physical activity, quality of food consumption and breakfast between elementary school children with normal and overweight nutritional status in Bogor City of Indonesia during the Covid-19 pandemic. This was a cross sectional study carried out from September 2020 to January 2021 in nine elementary schools in Bogor City. This research was conducted when school from home had been running for about six months. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire filled by the subject's parents via google form and Microsoft word and then interviewing via whatsapp. Physical activity measured using the Physical Activity Level (PAL) method and food consumption quality using the Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS). Breakfast quality based on the intake and contribution of energy and protein at breakfast. Result showed that 70% of male and 30% of female subjects were classified as overweight. There was a significant difference in the PAL value between subjects with normal weight and overweight (2.02 vs 1.63, p&lt;0.05). There were no significant differences in IDDS of normal weight and overweight students in both weekday and weekend (p&gt;0.05). However, IDDS scores of students with normal nutritional status was higher (7.08 and 8.60) compared to (6.80 and 6.78) in overweight students during the weekday and weekend respectively. In contrast, the energy and protein intake consumed during breakfast for overweight students was higher (617 kcal/day and 21 g/day) than students with normal nutritional status (477 kcal/day and 18.2 g/day) (p&lt;0.05). This study has shown the importance to educate parents of overweight subjects to increase their children's physical activity as the students with normal nutrition status do as well as to provide breakfast with a more diverse menu</p> Dini Rizkiani Putri Cesilia Meti Dwiriani Dodik Briawan Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 16 3 169 178 10.25182/jgp.2021.16.3.169-178 Facilitators and Barriers to Breastfeeding Practices of Mothers in a Selected Urban Community in Malaysia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan/article/view/36043 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was designed to explore the facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding practices among mothers in a selected urban population in Malaysia. This study reports the qualitative findings from a larger study that was conducted in two health clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. Ten mothers were recruited and an in-depth interview using grounded theory approach was used to obtain information. Interviews were transcribed and was manually arranged into codes and themes using thematic analysis. Facilitators to breastfeeding in this population were maternal factors (knowledge of breastfeeding, intention to breastfeed, perceived benefits of breastfeeding), social support and health care provider. Barriers to breastfeeding were insufficiency of breastmilk, employment and stigma of public breastfeeding. The findings of this study suggest that intervention to improve breastfeeding uptake should aim on increasing knowledge of mothers on coping with issues related to breastfeeding difficulties such as how to increase or sustain milk production and increasing awareness of employers and public on supporting breastfeeding mothers.</p> Naleena Devi Muniandy Fatin Iman Najihah Mohamad Yusof Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 16 3 179 188 10.25182/jgp.2021.16.3.179-188 Correlation Between Nutritional Status, Cognitive Function and Daytime Sleepiness of Schoolchildren in Terengganu, Malaysia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jgizipangan/article/view/35321 <p style="text-align: justify;">This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the correlation between nutritional status, cognitive function and daytime sleepiness of schoolchildren in Kuala Nerus, Terengganu. It involved 85 schoolchildren aged 9 to 12 years. Nutritional status was determined through anthropometric measurements, biochemical analyses for hemoglobin, urinalysis and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). While cognitive performance was tested using Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (R-CPM). The daytime sleepiness of the respondents was assessed using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). It was found that 16.5% of the respondents were stunted while 4.7%, 12.9% and 17.7% were obese, overweight and wasted, respectively. In addition, 37.7% of the respondents were anemic and the median UIC was 177.0 µg/l, which was categorized as normal for children. The majority (37.6%) of the respondents had an average cognitive level. Furthermore, the mean for daytime sleepiness based on PDSS score for overall respondents was categorized under an average level that was 14.1 score. In the present research, results found that all of the factors examined in this study were not correlated with respondents’ cognitive function. As the majority of the children had average to low levels of cognitive functions, it is recommended to investigate further factors associated with cognitive functions and, subsequently, to design and deliver appropriate intervention.</p> Nurul Husna Rosli Asma' Ali Khairil Shazmin Kamarudin Yusnita Hamzah Hayati Mohd Yusof Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 16 3 189 198 10.25182/jgp.2021.16.3.189-198