Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai <p>Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia (JAI) is a scientific journal publishes empirical research and recent science development in aquaculture. JAI is published twice a year in January and July since 2002 by the Indonesian Society of Scientific Aquaculture (ISSA) in association with the Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University. JAI accepts manuscripts written in English and in Bahasa (Indonesian). JAI only processes submitted original script related to aquaculture and not being published by other publishers. JAI has been registered in some indexing tools like Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Indonesian BASE, Publication Index (IPI), Google Scholar, Portal Garuda, Mendeley, SINTA, and IPB repository.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>p-ISSN <a href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1180429182" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1412-5269</a>&nbsp; /&nbsp; e-ISSN <a href="http://u.lipi.go.id/1385091088" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2354-6700</a></p> en-US <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their <a title="Click to Continue &gt; by trivia games" href="/index.php/jai/about/submissions#onlineSubmissions">work online<img src="http://cdncache-a.akamaihd.net/items/it/img/arrow-10x10.png" alt="" /></a> (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> akuakultur.indonesia@gmail.com (Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zairin Junior) akuakultur.indonesia@gmail.com (Fitratunisa) Sun, 06 Sep 2020 21:08:44 +0700 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Supplementation of Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induced by Vibrio harveyi as an immunostimulant for controlling vibriosis in vannamei white shrimp under marine culture system https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/32430 <p>ABSTRACT</p> <p><br>The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nodulisporium sp. KT29 supplementation with various<br>Vibrio harveyi induction in feed against vibriosis in vannamei white shrimp. The study design included KP (positive<br>control without supplementation Nodulisporium sp. KT29 and infected with V. harveyi), KN (negative controls<br>without Nodulisporium sp. KT29 and infected with physiological solution), NT (treatment of supplementation<br>Nodulisporium sp KT29 20 mL/kg and infected with V. harveyi), NM (treatment of supplementation test<br>Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induction of V. harveyi dead cell 20 mL/kg and infected V. harveyi), NH (treatment of<br>supplementation Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induction of V. harveyi live cell 20 mL/kg and infected with V. harveyi).<br>The study parameters included inhibition zone, resistance, immune responses, and hemolim glucose. The results<br>showed Nodulisporium sp. KT29 with induction treatment raised antibacterial activity with best treatment of NM<br>and NH (P&lt;0.05). The results of V. harveyi infection resistance presented NM treatment of 20 mL/kg increase<br>survival in vannamei shrimp reached 72.2% (P&lt;0.05). In addition, the same treatment increase the immune<br>response activity and decrease the activity of hemolim glucose. It could be concluded that providing NM 20 mL<br>treatment boosted the resistance and the immune system in vaname shrimp to control vibriosis reared at the sea.<br>Keywords: antibacterial, β-glucan, induced, Nodulisporium sp. KT29, Vibrio harveyi</p> <p><br>ABSTRAK</p> <p><br>Tujuan penelitian yaitu mengevaluasi efektivitas suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dengan berbagai perlakuan<br>induksi Vibrio harveyi dalam pakan terhadap pengendalian vibriosis pada udang vaname yang dibudidayakan di<br>laut. Rancangan penelitian meliputi KP (kontrol positif tanpa suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dan diinfeksi<br>V. harveyi), KN (kontrol negatif tanpa Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dan diinfeksi larutan fisiologis), NT (perlakuan<br>uji suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 20 mL/kg dan diinfeksi V. harveyi), NM (perlakuan uji suplementasi<br>Nodulisporium sp. KT29 diinduksi sel mati V. harveyi 20 mL/kg dan diinfeksi V. harveyi), NH (perlakuan uji<br>suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induksi sel hidup V. harveyi 20 mL/kg dan diinfeksi V. harveyi). Parameter<br>penelitian meliputi zona hambat, resistensi, respons imun, dan glukosa hemolim. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan<br>Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dengan perlakuan induksi dapat meningkatkan aktivitas antibakteri dengan perlakuan<br>terbaik NM dan NH (P&lt;0.05). Hasil pengamatan resistensi infeksi V. harveyi menunjukkan perlakuan NM 20 mL/<br>kg dapat meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup pada udang vaname mencapai 72.2% (P&lt;0.05). Perlakuan yang sama<br>juga meningkatkan respons imun dan menurunkan aktivitas glukosa hemolim. Disimpulkan bahwa pemberian<br>NM 20 mL dapat meningkatkan resistensi dan sistem imun udang vaname terhadap pengendalian vibriosis di laut.<br>Kata kunci : antibakteri, β-glucan, induksi, Nodulisporium sp. KT29, Vibrio harveyi,</p> Dinamella Wahjuningrum, Teuku Reza Efianda, Kustiariyah Tarman, Munti Yuhana, Irzal Effendi, Fazril Saputra Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/32430 Sun, 06 Sep 2020 21:08:15 +0700 Utilization of fermented sago pulp as a source of carbohydrate in feed for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/32516 <p>ABSTRACT<br>This study aimed to evaluate sago pulp fermentation method and its effect on crude fiber content, digestibility, and utilization of sago pulp as a feed raw material for Nile tilapia. Fermentation was done using three different fermenters, i.e. yeast tapai and baker’s yeast with five doses of 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, 50 g/kg,70 g/kg,100 g/kg, respectively, and sheep rumen liquid with five doses of 100 mL/kg, 200 mL/kg, 300 mL/kg, 500 mL/kg and 1000 mL/kg. The incubation time was 0, 24, 72, and 96 hours. In the digestibility test, tilapia (25 g) was stocked at a density of 7 fish/aquarium. Three different diets were applied in quadruplicate, i.e. reference diet (100% reference diet), unfermented sago pulp (AS), and fermented sago pulp (ASF). Three different dietary treatments (in quadruplicate) containing different carbohydrate sources were tested, i.e. cassava flour as a comparion (G), unfermented sago pulp (AS), and fermented sago pulp (ASF). Fermentation of sago pulp with tapai yeast at a dose of 50 g/kg at 72 hours incubation time could reduce crude fiber by 35.76%, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) by 32.68%, and hemicellulose by 60.39%. Fermentation with yeast tapai could significantly increase sago pulp dry matter digestibility by 34% and carbohydrate digestibility by 21%, as well as increase glucose absorption. The growth experiment showed that the use of ASF diets resulted in higher specific growth rate (3.31 ± 0.12%/ day), protein retention (47.34 ± 5.23%) and fat retention (85.58 ± 5.44%) than those of AS dietary. In conclusion, fermentation of sago pulp using yeast tapai at a dose of 50 g/kg at 72 hours incubation could reduce crude fiber content and increase dry matter and carbohydrate digestibilities, so that it can be used as a source of carbohydrates in tilapia diet.</p> <p><br>Keywords : carbohydrate, digestibility, fermentation, fiber, Nile tilapia, sago pulp</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>ABSTRAK</p> <p><br>Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi metode fermentasi ampas sagu dan pengaruhnya terhadap kandungan serat kasar, kecernaan, dan pemanfaatan ampas sagu sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan nila. Fermentasi dilakukan dengan penambahan tiga perlakuan bahan fermentor yaitu ragi tape dan ragi roti ditambahkan dengan dosis masing-masing sebanyak 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, 50 g/kg, 70 g/kg, 100 g/kg, dan cairan rumen domba yang ditambahkan dengan dosis 100 mL/kg, 200 mL/kg, 300 mL/kg, 500 mL/kg, dan 1000 mL/kg. Lama waktu inkubasi 0, 24, 72, dan 96 jam. Pada uji kecernaan digunakan ikan nila (25 g) yang dipelihara dengan kepadatan tujuh ekor per akuarium. Pada uji ini dilakukan tiga perlakuan pakan dengan empat ulangan, yaitu pakan acuan, ampas sagu tanpa fermentasi (AS), dan ampas sagu fermentasi (ASF). Percobaan dilakukan dengan tiga perlakuan pakan (4 ulangan) dengan tiga sumber karbohidrat yang berbeda yaitu gaplek (G) sebagai pembanding, ampas sagu (AS), dan ampas sagu fermentasi (ASF). Fermentasi ampas sagu dengan menggunakan ragi tape sebanyak 50 g/kg dengan lama inkubasi 72 jam dapat menurunkan serat kasar tertinggi sebanyak 35.76%, dan menurunkan fraksi serat neutral detergent fiber (NDF) dan hemisellulosa masing-masing sebanyak 32.68% dan 60.39%. Perlakuan fermentasi ampas sagu dapat meningkatkan nilai kecernaan bahan sebesar 34%, kecernaan karbohidrat sebesar 21%, serta penyerapan glukosa. Hasil uji pertumbuhan menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan ASF memberikan nilai laju pertumbuhan spesifik (3.31 ± 0.12%/hari), retensi protein (47.34 ± 5.23%) dan retensi lemak (85.58 ± 5.44%) yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan AS (P&lt;0.05). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa fermentasi ampas sagu dengan menggunakan ragi tape pada dosis 50 g/kg selama 72 jam dapat menurunkan kadar serat kasar dan meningkatkan kecernaan bahan dan karbohidrat sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat pada pakan ikan nila.</p> <p><br>Kata kunci : ampas sagu, fermentasi, ikan nila, karbohidrat, kecernaan, serat <br><br></p> I Kadek Sumiana, Julie Ekasari, Dedi Jusadi, Mia Setiawati Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/32516 Mon, 14 Sep 2020 13:24:56 +0700 Immune responses and resistance of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed Probiotic Bacillus sp NP5 and prebiotic honey against White Spot Syndrome Virus infection https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/28498 <div class="WordSection1"> <p align="center"><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p align="center"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>White spot disease</em> caused by <em>White Spot Syndrome Virus</em> (WSSV) is the most serious viral disease and has a major impact on the decline in production of white shrimp farm. Improving the immune response through the application of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic is expected to be one of the environmentally friendly alternatives to prevent the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of administrating <em>Baccillus</em> sp. NP5 probiotic, honey prebiotic and a combination both (synbiotic) in enhancing immune response and resistence of white shrimp to WSSV infection. This study consisted of five treatments and three replications, namely positive control (feeding without probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics then challenged with WSSV), negative control (feeding without probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, then injected with PBS), pro (feeding with the addition of <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5 probiotics then challenged against WSSV), pre (feeding with the addition of honey prebiotics then challenged against WSSV), and sin (feeding with the addition of synbiotics then challenged against WSSV). White shrimp with an average weight of 1.8±0.06 gram/shrimp were reared at a density of 15 shrimps per aquarium (60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm and water height of 20 cm) for eight weeks, then challenge against WSSV at lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) dose as much as 0.1 ml per shrimp. The results showed that the immune response and resistence of white shrimp after treatments of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics were better than those in controls with the optimal found in prebiotics treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5, honey, immune response, white shrimp, WSSV</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p align="center"><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p align="center"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>White spot disease</em> yang disebabkan oleh infeksi <em>white spot syndrome virus</em> (WSSV) merupakan penyakit viral paling serius dan berdampak besar terhadap penurunan produksi budidaya udang vaname. Perbaikan respons imun melalui aplikasi probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik dapat menjadi salah satu alternatif ramah lingkungan untuk pencegahan serangan penyakit tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pemberian probiotik <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5, prebiotik madu dan gabungan keduanya (sinbiotik) dalam meningkatkan respons imun dan resistansi udang vaname terhadap infeksi WSSV. Penelitian ini terdiri dari lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yaitu kontrol positif (pemberian pakan tanpa probiotik, prebiotik, dan sinbiotik kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV), kontrol negatif (pemberian pakan tanpa probiotik, prebiotik, dan sinbiotik kemudian diinjeksi PBS), pro (pemberian pakan dengan penambahan probiotik <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5 kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV), pre (pemberian pakan dengan penambahan prebiotik madu kemudian diuji tantang WSSV), dan sin (pemberian pakan dengan penambahan sinbiotik kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV). Udang vaname dengan bobot rata-rata 1.8±0.06 gram/ekor dipelihara dengan kepadatan 15 ekor per akuarium (60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm) selama delapan minggu, kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV sebanyak 0.1 ml per ekor pada dosis LD<sub>50</sub>. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa respons imun dan resistansi udang vaname setelah pemberian probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik lebih baik (P&lt;0.05) dibandingkan kontrol dengan hasil optimal pada perlakuan prebiotik.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5, madu, respons imun, udang vaname, WSSV.</p> </div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Widanarni Widanarni, Dewi Rahmi, Muhamad Gustilatov, Sukenda Sukenda, Diah Ayu Satyari Utami Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/28498 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 10:05:01 +0700 Evaluation of processed rubber seed oil Hevea brasiliensis utilization as lipid source in Clarias gariepinus feed https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/32778 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>Clarias gariepinus</em> rearing is mostly done with intensive systems that use a lot of commercial feed. The price of raw material for the feed lipid source which is currently the main source of fatty acids in freshwater fish feed continues to increase and compete with human needs. Rubber seed oil (RSO) is considered feasible to be an alternative. This study aimed to evaluate the use of heated RSO as alternative lipid source in <em>C gariepinus </em>feed. The results of this study indicated that heating could reduce HCN levels in RSO by 95%. Even after heated RSO was inserted into the feed formulation there is still HCN in feed, however it did not affect the survival rate of <em>C. gariepinus</em> statistically. Heated RSO based feed shows a specific growth rate that was higher than non-heating RSO-based feed. Feeding with heated RSO also did not affect nutrient retention in <em>C. gariepinus</em>. This also followed by blood profile, blood chemistry and body fatty acids profile, MDA levels and SOD levels which were almost same as treatment feed using fish oil and corn oil. From these results, it can be concluded that heating can reduce 95% HCN content in RSO and can be used as a lipid source in <em>C. gariepinus</em> feed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Aquaculture, essential fatty acids, growth performance, HCN, rubber seed oil.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Budidaya ikan lele <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> &nbsp;dengan sistem intensif menggunakan banyak pakan buatan. Harga bahan baku untuk sumber lemak pakan terus meningkat dan bersaing dengan kebutuhan manusia. Minyak biji karet (MBK) layak menjadi alternatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi penggunaan MBK yang dipanaskan sebagai sumber lemak alternatif dalam pakan ikan lele. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan proses pemanasan dapat mengurangi kadar HCN pada MBK hingga 95%. Walaupun masih terdapat sejumlah kecil HCN pada pakan berbasis MBK yang dipanaskan, tetapi tidak memengaruhi tingkat kelangsungan hidup ikan lele (p&gt;0,05). Pakan berbasis MBK proses pemanasan menunjukkan laju pertumbuhan spesifik yang lebih tinggi dari pakan berbasis MBK yang tidak dipanaskan. Pemberian pakan berbasis MBK proses pemanasan juga tidak memengaruhi retensi nutrisi ikan lele. Demikian pula parameter profil darah, kimia darah, profil asam lemak tubuh, kadar MDA dan kadar SOD hampir sama dengan pakan perlakuan berbasis minyak ikan dan minyak jagung. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan MBK proses pemanasan dapat mengurangi 95% kandungan HCN dan dapat digunakan sebagai sumber lemak dalam pakan ikan lele.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: Akuakultur, asam lemak esensial, HCN, kinerja pertumbuhan, minyak biji karet.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nuraini Annisa, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi, Mia Setiawati, Ichsan Ahmad Fauzi Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/32778 Fri, 09 Oct 2020 10:45:23 +0700 Nuclear DNA content variation within four species of Asian catfish of family Pangasidae and their two interspecific hybrids by flow cytometry https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29426 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Nuclear DNA content (NDC) of species or population is believed to have been formed naturally by many mechanisms such chromosomal mutation, insertion and deletion, transposable element, and duplication. Additionally, hybridizations and species’ phylogenetic relationship may also contribute to the NDC diversity. This study was aimed to investigate the profile of NDC in four species Asian catfishes of the genera Pangasius including <em>Pangasionodon hypophthalmus</em>,&nbsp; <em>Pangasius djambal, Pangasius nasusutus, Pangasius nieuwenhuisii</em>, interspecific hybrid of female <em>P. hypophthalmus</em> and male <em>P. djambal </em>(Hybrid HD<em>)</em>,&nbsp; and female <em>P. hypophthalmus</em> and male <em>P. nasutus </em>(Hybrid HN<em>). </em>Red blood cells (RBC) were taken from the respective species/groups and NDC measurement was performed in an Attune acoustic flowcytometer (ABI) using DAPI staining and chicken, <em>Gallus domesticus, RBC </em>was used as size reference. The results showed that the mean NDC of <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>, <em>P. djambal. P. nasusutus, P. nieuwenhuisii,</em> were 0.960±0.0254 pg, 1.017±0.0510 pg, 1.000±0.0410 pg, 1.074±0.0231 pg, which are within the range of NDC in the other catfish families The NDC values of Hybrid HD and Hybrid HN were1.005±0.0358 and 0.956± 0.0089, respectively. Among the pure line species, the NDC of <em>P. hypophthalmus</em> was the lowest and was different (P&lt;0.05) from those of <em>P. djambal</em> and <em>P. nieuwenhuisii </em>but was not different (P&gt;0.05) from that of the<em> P. nasutus. </em>The NDC of both Hybrid HD and Hybrid HN were not different form their respective parental lines. However, the NDC profiles of both hybrids were different in that the NDC of the former was in between while the latter was below their respective parental lines. Phylogenetically, the NDC diversity within Pangasiid catfish in this study was independent of their phylogenetic relationship based on cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Flow cytometry, nuclear DNA content, <em>P.hypophthalmus, P. djambal, P. nasutus, P. nieuwenhuisii, </em>interspecific hybrid.</p> Imron, Evi Tahapari, Jadmiko Darmawan, Muhammad Luthfi Abdurachman Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/29426 Mon, 19 Oct 2020 12:32:51 +0700 Bone formation and growth of climbing perch Anabas testudinieus larvae fed with Zn enriched Artemia nauplii https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/33171 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the optimum level of Zinc (Zn) enrichment in <em>Artemia </em>sp<em>.</em> nauplii as a live feed to improve bone formation and growth of climbing perch <em>A</em><em>nabas</em><em> testudinieus</em> larvae. The study consisted of four different Zn enrichment levels (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mg/mL) in <em>Artemia </em>sp<em>.</em>nauplii. The enrichment was performed for 12 hours with the nauplii density of 1 ind/mL. Climbing perch larvae with an average initial length of 1.65 ± 0.15 mm were fed four times daily with the enriched nauplii. For the first 5 days, all larvae were fed with rotifer followed by feeding with enriched <em>Artemia </em>nauplii <em>ad libitum</em>. The results showed that the application of <em>Artemia </em>sp<em>.</em> enrichment at 0.1 mg Zn/mL influenced the bone formation, increased the growth, and improved the fish survival of climbing perch larvae. Feeding with 0.1 mg/mL Zn enriched <em>Artemia </em>nauplii could be recommended as a strategy to improve the bone formation and growth performance of climbing perch larvae.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Anabas testudineus</em>, <em>Artemia </em>sp<em>.</em>, climbing perch, live feed, zinc</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan dosis optimum pengayaan seng (Zn) pada naupli <em>Artemia </em>sp<em>. </em>terhadap pembentukan tulang dan peningkatan pertumbuhan larva ikan betok. Penelitian dilakukan selama 18 hari dengan empat dosis pengayaan Zn yang berbeda (0, 0,05, 0,1, dan 0,15 mg/mL) pada naupli <em>Artemia</em>. Pengayaan dilakukan selama 12 jam dengan kepadatan naupli 1 ind/mL. Larva ikan betok dengan ukuran panjang awal rata-rata 1.65 ± 0.15 mm diberi pakan naupli yang diperkaya sebanyak 4 kali sehari. Pada lima hari pertama, semua larva diberi pakan rotifer, diikuti dengan pemberian naupli <em>Artemia</em> yang diperkaya secara <em>ad libitum</em>. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa pengayaan naupli<em> Artemia </em>sp<em>.</em> dengan Zn 0,1 mg/mL berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan tulang belakang dan dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan serta meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan betok. Pemberian naupli <em>Artemia </em>dengan Zn sebanyak 0.1 mg Zn/mL dapat direkomendasikan untuk perbaikan pembentukan tulang dan pertumbuhan larva ikan betok.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: Naupli<em> Artemia </em>sp<em>.</em>, ikan betok, pakan alami, seng</p> Ismarica Ismarica, Mia Setiawati, Dedi Jusadi, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/33171 Wed, 04 Nov 2020 09:46:21 +0700 Improved performance of botia fish Chromobotia macracanthus with the utilization of blood clam shell in the recirculation system https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/33293 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Intermediate and holding rearing of botia face several problems such as the limited land, water quality, and decreased growth. The application of a recirculation culture system using the blood clam filter is increased to water quality and expected to solve the problems. This study aimed to analyze the production performance of botia fish on intermediate and holding rearing in the recirculation system by utilizing blood clams as the filter. This study used a factorial completely randomized design with two factors; clam particle sizes (1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) and dosages (1.4 g/L, 1.8 g/L, and 2.2 g/L). Every experiment was conducted in three replication. The aquarium used in this study was 40×40×60 cm<sup>3</sup>. The size of fish samples was 3.5 ± 0.5 cm with the stocking density (3 fish/L, each test aquarium). The recirculation system was applied seven days before the fish were stocked. Every 15 days, weight and length of fish were measured (for 60 days). The results of physical (temperature) and chemical (pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia dan nitrite) water quality in the recirculation system using the blood clam filter showed good conditions for botia fish. The stress response of botia blood glucose and TKO fluctuates with environmental changes. Mineral water and fish produced by calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus increase until the end of maintenance. There is an interaction at TKH between particle size and the dose of blood shells, whereas, LMPW, LMPL, and RKP significantly different only the use of dose 2.2 g/L.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>&nbsp;</em>Clamshells, botia fish, pH value, minerals, recirculation.</p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Permasalahan pada proses penampungan ikan botia yaitu keterbatasan lahan, kualitas air yang buruk dan pertumbuhan ikan botia yang lambat. Penerapan sistem resirkulasi menggunakan cangkang darah dapat meningkatkan kualitas air dan kinerja produksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja produksi budidaya ikan botia pada sistem resirkulasi dengan pemanfataan cangkang kerang darah sebagai bahan filter. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dua faktor, yaitu ukuran partikel cangkang kerang darah (1 mm, 2 mm, dan 3 mm) dan dosis cangkang kerang darah (1.4g/L, 1.8g/L dan 2.2g/L). Setiap perlakuan dilakukan dengan tiga kali ulangan. Akuarium yang digunakan dalam penelitian berukuran 40×40×60 cm<sup>3</sup>. Ikan yang digunakan berukuran 3.5 ± 0.5 cm dengan padat tebar 3 ekor/L. Sistem resirkulasi dioperasikan selama tujuh hari sebelum ikan ditebar. Bobot dan panjang ikan diukur setiap 15 hari selama 60 hari pemeliharaan. Penelitian dalam sistem resirkulasi menggunakan cangkang kerang darah pada media filter menghasilkan kondisi kualitas air suhu, pH, oksigen terlarut, amonia dan nitrit air. Respons stres ikan berupa glukosa darah dan tingkat konsumsi oksigen (TKO) berfluktuasi seiring dengan perubahan lingkungan. Mineral air dan ikan yang dihasilkan meliputi kalsium, magnesium dan fosfos meningkat hingga akhir pemeliharaan. Parameter tingkat kelangsungan hidup (TKH) memiliki interaksi &nbsp;antara ukuran partikel dan dosis cangkang kerang darah, sedangkan untuk laju pertumbuhan bobot mutlak (LPMB), laju pertumbuhan panjang mutlak (LPMP) dan rasio konversi pakan (RKP) berbeda nyata dengan penggunaan dosis 2.2 g/L.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: <em>&nbsp;</em>Cangkang kerang darah, ikan botia, pH, mineral, resirkulasi.</p> Rani Ria Rizki, Iis Diatin, Tatag Budiardi, Irzal Effendi Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/33293 Thu, 12 Nov 2020 09:52:53 +0700 The use of different 17β-estradiol hormone doses and water temperatures to control cannibalism in catfish Clarias gariepinus seed https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/33405 <p>Cannibalism is a major problem in the intensive catfish hatchery that caused high mortality. This phenomenon is allegedly due to the high level of testosterone hormones in the early larvae and seed stages. Testosterone is a maternal steroid hormone that is transferred directly by the parent to the egg. Catfish broodstock has high testosterone levels during the gonad maturation phase and it enters the eggs during the process of vitellogenesis. A high level of testosterone is considered to cause catfish seeds to behave aggressively and subsequently encourage cannibalism. This testosterone level may be reduced by estrogen through a negative feedback mechanism. This experiment aimed to evaluate the use of several 17β-estradiol doses at different water temperatures to control cannibalism in catfish seeds. This experiment used two factors, i.e. 17β-estradiol doses (0, 20, and 50 mg/kg) coated in the diet and water temperatures (28 and 31°C). The results showed that 17β-estradiol levels in catfish seeds increased with increasing experimental length. The use of 17β-estradiol at low water temperature (28°C) was better in decreasing mortality, while the dose of 50 mg/kg17β-estradiol which applied at 28°C was the best combination in controlling cannibalism on catfish seeds.</p> <p><sup>&nbsp;</sup></p> <p>Keywords: 17β-estradiol, cannibalism<em>, Clarias gariepinus, </em>seed<em>.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Kanibalisme merupakan salah satu masalah utama dalam pembenihan ikan lele intensif karena menyebabkan kematian yang tinggi. Fenomena ini diduga karena kadar hormon testosteron yang tinggi pada tahap larva dan benih. Testosteron merupakan hormon steroid maternal yang ditransfer secara langsung oleh induk ke telur. Induk ikan lele memiliki kadar testosteron yang tinggi pada fase pematangan gonad dan masuk ke dalam telur selama proses vitelogenesis. Tingginya kadar testosteron diduga menyebabkan benih berperilaku agresif dan akan mendorong kanibalisme. Kadar testosteron dapat ditekan dengan meningkatkan kadar hormon estrogen melalui mekanisme <em>feedback</em> negatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi penggunaan dosis estradiol-17β dan suhu pemeliharaan yang berbeda untuk mengendalikan kanibalisme pada benih ikan lele. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua faktor yaitu dosis estradiol-17β yang berbeda (0, 20, dan 50 mg/kg) yang diberikan melalui pakan, dan suhu pemeliharaan yang berbeda (28 dan 31°C). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi estradiol-17β pada benih ikan lele meningkat seiring dengan lamanya pemeliharaan. Penggunaan estradiol-17β pada suhu 28°C lebih baik dalam mengurangi mortalitas, sementara dosis estradiol-17β 50 mg/kg pada suhu pemeliharaan 28°C adalah kombinasi terbaik dalam mengendalikan kanibalisme pada benih ikan lele.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: benih, <em>Clarias gariepinus,</em> estradiol-17β, kanibalisme.</p> Hylda Khairah Putri, Muhammad Zairin Jr., Odang Carman, Iis Diatin Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia https://jma.journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jai/article/view/33405 Fri, 20 Nov 2020 10:09:10 +0700