JIPI
Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Pengembangan Butiran Premiks untuk Fortifikasi Zat Besi dalam Beras

  • Feri Kusnandar Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680
  • Faleh Setia Budi Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680
  • Yustikawati Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680
  • Yane Regiyana Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680
  • Slamet Budijanto Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680

Abstract

Iron-fortified rice potentially increases iron consumption in order to overcome anemia in Indonesia. Premix kernel can be applied as a fortificant vehicle being formulated into rice. The premix kernel is processed by mixing rice flour and iron source and extruded to yield rice-like extrudate. This research aimed to develop iron premix kernel using a double screw extruder and evaluate the fortificant homogeneity during mixing and stability due to washing as well as overall sensory acceptability of fortified rice. The premix kernel was made by mixing rice flour (1000 g), pyrophosphate ferries (containing 5,000 mg Fe), and GMS (10 g) for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes, added with water (450 mL) and passed into an extruder at 80°C. The dry-mixed for 20 minutes yielded a homogenous premix kernel (6,030±135 mg/kg with RSD of 2.25%). The mixing of premix kernel and Pandanwangi rice (1:100) for 25 minutes using a blade mixer yielded fortified rice with iron content of 39 mg/kg and RSD of 13.56%. The washing process of fortified rice decreased iron content, and the percentage of iron loss was affected by the washing frequency. Raw and cooked fortified rice did not differ organoleptically from those without fortification.

Keywords: anemia, fortified rice, ferric pyrophospate, homogeneity, premix kernel

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Allen L, de Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell R. 2006. Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrient. Geneva, Switzerland/Rome, Italy (IT): World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations.

[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. 2005. Official Method of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. Rinsington DC.

Biebinger R, Zimmermann MB, Al-Hooti SN, Al-Hamed N, Al-Salem E, Zafar T, Kabir Y, Al-Obaid I, Petry N, Hurrell RF. 2009. Efficacy of wheat-based biscuits fortified with microcapsules containing ferrous sulfate and potassium iodate or a new hydrogen-reduced elemental iron: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial in Kuwaiti women. British Journal of Nutrition. 102(9): 1362–1369. https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509990353

Beinner MA, Gustavo VM, Milene CP, Ted, G. 2010. Iron-fortified rice is as efficasious as supplemental iron drops in infants and young children. The Journal of Nutrition. 140: 49–53. https://doi.org/ 10.3945/jn.109.112623

[BS] British Standards (UK). 2004. Sensory Analysis–Methodology–Triangle Test. BS 4120:2004.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistika. 2017. Kajian Konsumsi Bahan Pokok 2017. Jakarta (ID).

Budi FS, Hariyadi P, Budijanto S, Syah D. 2013. Teknologi proses ekstrusi untuk membuat beras analog. Pangan. 22(3): 263–274.

Budijanto S, Yuliyanti. 2012. Studi persiapan tepung sorgum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) dan aplikasinya pada pembuatan beras analog. Jurnal Teknik Pertanian. 13(3): 177–186.

Chairil MMF, Kustiyah L. 2014. Formulasi flakes berbasis pati garut dengan fortifikasi zat besi (fe) untuk perbaikan status besi remaja putri. Jurnal Gizi Dan Pangan. 9(2): 89–96.

Fairweather-Tait SJ, Wortley GM, Teucher B, Dainty J. 2001. Iron absorption from a breakfast cereal: effects of EDTA compounds and ascorbic acid. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 71(2): 117–22. https://doi.org/10. 1024/0300-9831.71.2.117

Feldsine P, Abeyta, Andrews C, Wallace H. 2002. AOAC international methods committee guidelines for validation of qualitative and quantitative food microbiological official methods of analysis. Journal of AOAC International. 85(5): 1187–1200. https:// doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/85.5.1187

Furter MF, Lauter WM, De Ritter E, Rubin SH. 1946. Enrichment of rice with synthetic vitamin and iron. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 38(5): 486–493. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50437a014

Hackl LS, Abizari AR, Speich C, Zungbey-Garti, H, Cercamondi C., Zeder I, Zimmermann MB. Moretti D. 2019. Micronutrient-fortified rice can be a significant source of dietary bioavailable iron in schoolchildren from rural Ghana. Science Advance. 5(3): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau0790

Harnby M, Edwards MF, Nienow AW. 2001. Mixing in the Process Industries. Elsevier Ltd, Barkeley.

Hotz C, Maribel P, Germán O., Armando GG., Terry E, Shirley J, Ted G. 2008. Efficacy of iron-fortified ultra rice in improving the iron status of women in Mexico. Bulletin Food and Nutrition. 29(2): 140–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/156482650802900208

Hussain SZ, Baljit S, Rather AH. 2014. Efficacy of micronutrient fortified extruded rice in improving the iron and vitamin A status in Indian schoolchildren. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology. 5(3): 227–238.

Indrasari SD. 2006. Kandungan Mineral Padi Varietas Unggul dan Kaitannya dengan Kesehatan. Iptek Tanaman Pangan. 1(1): 88–99.

Indrasari SD, Hanarida I, Daradjat AA. 2002. Breeding for iron dense rice: a low cost, sustainable approach to reducing anemia in Asia. Indonesian Final Report Year I. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Indonesian Center Food Crops Research and Development (ICFORD) (nutrition aspect).

[Kemenkes RI] Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2013. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013. Jakarta (ID).

[Kemenkes RI] Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2019. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 28 TAHUN 2019 tentang Angka Kecukupan Gizi yang Dianjurkan untuk Masyarakat Indonesia.

Kuong K, Laillou A, Chea C, Chamnan C, Berger J, Wieringa FT. 2016. Stability of vitamin a, iron and zinc in fortified rice during storage and its impact on future national standards and programs-case study in Cambodia. Nutrients. 8: 1–9. https://doi. org/10.3390/nu8010051

Lisa, Kusnandar F, Suyatma NE. 2017. Iron fortification of soya based infant cereal and its stability during storage. Journal of Food Technology and Preservation. 1(2): 16–2.

Losso JN, Karki N, Muyonga J, Wu Y, Fusilier K, Jacob G, Yu Y, Rood JC, Finley JW, Greenway FL. 2017. Iron retention in iron-fortified rice and use of iron-fortified rice to treat women with iron deficiency: A pilot study. BBA Clinical. 8: 78–83. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.bbacli.2017.09.001

Mishra A, Mishra HN, Rao PS. 2012. Preparation of rice analogues using extrusion technology. International Journal of Food Science Technology. 47: 1789–1797. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03035.x

Mohammadi M, Abedi AS, Azizi MH, Ahmadian FS, Pouraram H. 2011. Development of fortified biscuit using NaFeEDTA. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.91(11): 1984–19849. https:// doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4405

Naruki S, Astuti M, Marsono Y, Raharjo S. 2009. Sifat prooksidatif fortifikan NaFeEDTA dan Fe-sulfat pada kecap hasil fortifikasi. Agritech. 29(2): 59–63.

Noviasari S, Kusnandar F, Budijanto S. 2013. Pengembangan beras analog dengan memanfaatkan jagung putih. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan. 24: 195–201. https:// doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2013.24.2.194

Noviasari S, Kusnandar F, Setiyono A, Budijanto S. 2015. Beras analog sebagai pangan fungsional dengan indeks glikemik rendah. Jurnal Gizi Pangan. 10(3): 225–232

Penugonda K, Fiorentino NM, Alavi S, Lindshield BL. 2018. Bioavailable iron and vitamin a in newly formulated, extruded corn, soybean, sorghum, and cowpea fortified-blended foods in the in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell model. Current Developments in Nutrition. 2(7): 1–10. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/cdn/nzy021

Priambudi AP, Kusnandar F, Palupi NS. 2017. Stabilitas dan bioavalaibilitas in vitro zat besi sebagai fortifikan dalam bumbu mi instan. Jurnal Ilmu Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian. 1(1): 37–53. https://doi.org/10.26877/jiphp.v1i1.1364

Prom‐u‐thai C, Rerkasem B, Fukai S, Huang L. 2009. Iron fortification and parboiled rice quality: appearance, cooking quality and sensory attributes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2(4): 323–328. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3753

Richins AT, Burton KE, Pahulu HF, Jefferies, Dunn M. 2008. Effect of iron source on color and appearance of micronutrient-fortified corn flour tortillas. Cereal Chemistry. 85(4): 561–565. https://doi.org/ 10.1094/CCHEM-85-4-0561

Setyawati R, Dwiyanti H, Aini N. 2018. Pengaruh fortifikasi zat besi terhadap sifat kimia dan sensori biskuit ubi kayu yang disuplementasi tepung ikan-tempe. Agritech. 38 (4): 396–403. https:// doi.org/10.22146/agritech.39522

Steiger G, Nadina MF, Hector C, Beatrice CP. 2014. Fortification of rice: technologies and nurients. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1324: 29–39 https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12418

Valcárcel AMC, Graciá CM, Miró SM, Sánchez JM, Bermúdez CAG, Asensi GD, Nicolás RL, Pascual MS. 2019. Iron bioavailability of four iron sources used to fortify infant cereals, using anemic weaning pigs as a model. European Journal of Nutrution. 58(5): 1911–1922. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00394-018-1742-x

[WHO] World Health Organization. 2018. Guideline: Fortification of Rice with Vitamins and Minerals as a Public Health Strategy. Genewa (CH)

Published
2020-10-27
How to Cite
Kusnandar, F., Setia Budi, F., Yustikawati, Regiyana, Y., & Budijanto, S. (2020). Pengembangan Butiran Premiks untuk Fortifikasi Zat Besi dalam Beras. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, 25(4), 592-598. https://doi.org/10.18343/jipi.25.4.592