The Fruit Characteristics of Ambon Forest Nutmeg (Myristica fatua Houtt) and Banda Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt)
Ambon Forest nutmeg (Myristica fatua Houtt) is one of the endemic plants in Indonesia. The morphological characteristic of Ambon Forest nutmeg is slightly different from that of Banda nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) i.e., it is not used as spices, but its oil is used as a lamp oil. This study aimed to determine the chemical components and essential oils of Ambon Forest nutmeg derived from its seeds, mace, and flesh compared to Banda nutmeg. Extractions of essential oils were performed using a steam hydro-distillation. Analysis of chemical compositions and contents of essential oil was carried out using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) instrument and SNI 06-2388-2006 method. The essential oil contents in Ambon Forest nutmeg were relatively low, i.e., 0.63% in the seeds, 0.30% in the mace, and 0.04% in the flesh compared to Banda nutmeg i.e., 1% in the seeds, 40% in the mace, and 3.5% in the fruit flesh. The chemical compositions of essential oils showed that M. fatua Houtt contained 12 compounds in the seeds, 24 compounds in the mace, and 17 compounds in the fruit flesh, while for Banda Nutmeg, the contents of essential oils were found 18 compounds in the seeds, 10 compounds in the mace, and 15 compounds in the fruit flesh. M. fatua Houtt contained the highest Copaene, i.e., 28.41% in the seeds, 10.42% in the mace, and 23.33% in the fruit flesh. Myristicin, as the main marker compound of nutmeg oil, was also found in Ambon Forest nutmeg i.e., 1.3% in the seeds, 1.16% in the mace, and 5.19% in the fruit flesh. However, these results showed lower contents when compared to Banda nutmeg with Myristicin contents of 8.72% in the seeds, 10.14% in the mace, and 10.46% in the fruit flesh.
Keywords: Essential oil, Myristica fatua Houtt, Myristica fragrans Houtt, Nutmeg
Afoulous S, Ferhout H, Raoelison EG, Valentin A, Moukarzel B, Couderc F, Bouajila J. 2013. Chemical composition and anticancer, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei. Food Chem Toxicol. 56: 352-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.02.008
Assagaf M, Hastuti P, Hidayat C, Supriyadi. 2012.Perbandingan ekstraksi oleoresin biji pala (Myrictica fragrans Houtt) asal Maluku Utara menggunakan metode maserasi dan gabungan distilasi-maserasi. Journal Agritech. 32(3): 240-248.
Barceloux DG. 2008. Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Toxic Plants, and Venomous Animals. New York (US): J Wiley.
De Wild WJJO. 2000. Myristicacea Series I-Seed Plant. Flora Malesiana Vol. 14. Nationaal Herbarium Nederland. Nederland (ND): Universiteit Leiden branch.
Fajriah S, Darmawan A, Megawati, Hudiyono S, Kosela S, Hanaﬁ M. 2017. New cytotoxic compounds from Myristica fatua Houtt leaves against MCF-7 cell lines. Phytochem Letters. 20: 36-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2017.03.013
Fajriah S, Megawati. 2015. Phytochemical screening and toxicity assay from Myristica fatua Houtt leaves. Chimica et Natura Acta. 3(3): 116-119. https://doi.org/10.24198/cna.v3.n3.9219
Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Scheffer JJC. 2008. Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: volatile components and essential oils. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 23: 213-226. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1875
Heyne. 1987. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia Vol 3. Jakarta (ID) Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya.
Jamal, Agusta. 2004. Komposisi Kimia Minyak Astiri Pala Wegio (Myristica fatua Houtt). Berita Biologi. 7(3): 155-158.
Kapelle IBD, Laratmase1 MS. 2014. Trimyristin isolation from nutmeg and synthesis of methylester using heterogen catalyst. Indonesian Journal Of Chemical Research. 2: 160-165.
Ketaren S. 1987. Pengantar Teknologi Minyak Atsiri. Balai Pustaka. 458 pp.
Kizil S, Toncer O, Diraz E, Karaman S. 2015. Variations in essential oil rates and compositions characteristics and essential oil components of zahter (Thymbra spicata l. Var. Spicata) populations in semi-arid climatic conditions. Turkish journal of field crops. 20(2): 242-251. https://doi.org/10.17557/tjfc.46517
Lim,T.K. 2012. Edibel Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants.Vol 3, Fruit. Springer, New York (US): Pp. 572-574. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2534-8_79
Ma’mun. 2013. Characteristics of Oil and Trimyristin Isolation of Papua Nutmeg Seeds (Myristica argentea). Jurnal Littri. 19(2): 72-77.
Nishida R, Shelly TE, Whittier TS, Kaneshiro KY. 2000. α-Copaene, a potential rendezvous cue for the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 26: 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005489411397
Pal M, Srivastava M, Soni DK, Kumar A, Tewari SK. 2011. Composition and anti-mikrobial activity of essensial oil of Myristica fragrans from Andaman Nicobar Island. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Science. 2(10): 1115-1117.
Quintans JS, Soares BM, Ferraz RP, Oliveira AC, da Silva TB, Menezes LR, Sampaio MF, Prata AP, Moraes MO, Pessoa C, Antoniolli AR, Costa EV, Bezerra DP. 2013. Chemical constituents and anticancer effects of the essential oil from leaves of Xylopia laevigata. Planta Med. 79: 123-130. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1328091
Shafiq MI, Ahmed M, Rasul A, Samra ZQ, Qadir MA, Mazhar S, Ali A. 2016. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Nutmeg and Mace by GC-FID/MS Indigenous to Pakistan and Evaluation of their Biological Activities. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy. 35(10): 2176-2184.
SNI. 2006. Minyak Pala. Standar Nasional Indonesia 06-2388. Jakarta (ID): Badan Standarisasi Nasional. 6 hlm.
Turkez H, Togar B, Celik K. 2013. Effects of copaene, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, on human lymphocytes cells in vitro. Cytotechnology. 66: 597-603. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-013-9611-1
Turkez H, Togar B, Tatar A, Geyıkoglu F, Hacımuftuoglu A. 2014. Cytotoxic and cytogenetic effects of α-Copaene on Rat neuron and N2a neuroblastoma cell lines. Biologia. 69(7): 936-942, https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-014-0393-5
Vinholes J, Rudnitskaya A, Goncalves P, Martel F, Coimbra MA, Rocha SM. 2013. Hepatoprotection of sesquiterpenoids: a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach. Food Chem.146: 78-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09. 039
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).