Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlations between Leaf-Rust Disease and Leaf Morphology and its Ratio in Arabica Coffee
Selection parameter in coffee breeding for leaf rust (Hemeleia vastatrix) resistance is very important. Breeders used leaf-rust severity and leaf-rust incidence as parameters of direct selection. However, scientific proof is not yet available whether leaf morphology can be used as a parameter of indirect selection. The objective of this research was to seek the possibility of leaf morphology parameter and its ratio to be used as selection criteria through analyses of genotypic and phenotypic correlations of parameter of rust disease and parameter of leaf morphology and its ratio. The result revealed that genotypes showed significant variations in leaf-rust severity (5.21–25.84%), leaf morphology, and leaf-morphology ratio. Leaf length to leaf width ratio, leaf length to leaf area ratio, and leaf width to leaf weight ratio were not affected by the environment. Leaf-rust severity performed highly significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations the ratio of with leaf length to leaf area. For selection criteria, leaf-rust severity could be better used rather than leaf-rust incidence and branch-rust incidence. The ratio of leaf length to leaf area could also be used as an indirect selection criterion because the ratio showed a highly significant genotypic correlation with leaf-rust severity (rGab = 0.254**). However, the ratio of leaf length to leaf area is even better chosen for selection criteria rather than leaf-rust severity because the ratio was not affected by the environment.
Keywords: fungus, Hemeleia vastatrix, indirect selection
Andreazi E, Sera GH, Faria RT, de T, Sera T, Shigueoka LH, Carvalho FG, Carducci FC, Chamlet D. 2015. Performance of f1 hybrids of arabica coffee with simultaneous resistance to leaf rust, bacterial blight and leaf miner. Coffee Science. 10(3): 375-382.
Ameson. 2000. Coffee rust.The Plant Health Instructor. [internet] [Accessed 8 February 2014]. Available on: https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/basidiomycetes/pages/coffeerust.aspx. https:// doi.org/10.1094/PHI-I-2000-0718-02
Avelino A, Cristancho M, Georgiou S, Imbach P, Aguilar L, Bornemann G, Läderach P, Anzueto F, Hruska AJ, Morales C. 2015. The coffee rust crises in Colombia and Central America (2008-2013): impacts, plausible causes and proposed solutions. Food Security. 7(2): 303-321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0446-9
[BMKG] Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi dan Geofosika. 2017. Weather forecast for North Sumatera. [internet] [Accessed 28 August 2017]. Available on: http://www.bmkg.go.id/cuaca/ prakiraan-cuaca-indonesia.bmkg?Prov=34&Nama Prov =Sumatera%20Utara.
Boudrot A, Pico J, Merle I, Granados E, Vilchez S, Tixier P, Filho EDMV, Casanoves F, Tapia A, Allinne C, Rice RA, Avelino J. 2016. Shade Effects on the Dispersal of Airborne Hemileia vastatrix Uredospores. Phytopathology. 106(6): 572-580. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-02-15-0058-R
Caicedo BLC, Hernando A, Guerrero C, Roux J, Wingfield MJ. 2013. New coffee (Coffea arabica) genotypes derived from Coffea canephora exhibiting high levels of resistance to leaf rust and Ceratocystis canker. Tropical plant pathology. 38(6): 485-494. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1982-5676201 3000600004
Carvalho CR, Fernandes RC, Carvalho GMA, Barreto, RW, Evans HC. 2011. Cryptosexuality and the Genetic Diversity Paradox in Coffee Rust, Hemileia vastatrix. PLoS ONE. 6(11): e26387. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026387
[DGEC] Directorate General of Estate Crops. 2017. Tree crop estate statistics of Indonesia 2016-2018, Cofee. Jakarta (ID).
Gomez AK, Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. New York (US):John Wiley & Sons.
Harni R, Taufiq E, Martono B. 2015. Reistance of liberica coffee against leaf rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix B. et Br.) in kepulauan Meranti. Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. 2(1): 35-42. https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v2n1.2015.p35-42
Hindorf H, Omondi CO. 2011. A review of three major fungal diseases of Coffea Arabica L. in the rainforests of Ethiopia and progress in breeding for resistance in Kenya. Journal Advance Research. 2: 109-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2010.08.006
Jeffuka C, Fininsa C, Adugna G, Hindorf H. 2010. Coffee leaf rust epicemic (Hemileia vastatrix) in Montane coffee (Coffea Arabica L.) forests in southwestern Ethiopia. East African Journal of Sciences. 4(2): 86-95. https://doi.org/10.4314/eajsci.v4i2.71530
Lima AED, Junior HGS, Castro EDM, Carvalho SPD, Silva FFD, Junior SDL, Carvalho AMD. 2019. Incidence and severity of coffee leaf rust, cercosporiosis and coffee leaf miner in coffee progenies. Coffee Science. 13(3): 349-355. https:// doi.org/10.25186/cs.v13i3.1459
López-Bravo DF, Virginio-Filho E, de M, Avelino J, 2012. Shade is conducive to coffee rust as compared to full sun exposure under standardized fruit load conditions. Crop Protection. 38: 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.03.011
Malau S, Siagian A, Sirait B, Pandiangan, S. 2017. Performance of coffee origin and genotype in organoleptic and physical quality of Arabica coffee in North Sumatra Province of Indonesia. 1st Nommensen International Conferennce on Technology and Engineering: Advancements in Technology and Engineering. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 237: 012035. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/237/1/ 012035
Malau S, Pandiangan S. 2018. Variation of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Growing in North Sumatra Province of Indonesia Based on Morphology. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia. 46(3): 314-321. https://doi.org/10.24831/jai.v46i3.193 42
Malau S, Siagian A, Sirait B, Ambarita H. 2018a. Germination performance of Coffea arabica L. genotypes from different altitude, precipitation and temperature of seeds producing farms in North Sumatra of Indonesia. International Conference on Agribusiness, Food and Agro-Technology. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sience. 205: 012013. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/205/1/012013
Malau S, Siagian A, Sirait B, Ambarita H. 2018b. PlantgrowthofgenotypesofArabicacoffeeonwater stress. 2nd Nommensen International Conference on Technology and Engineering 2018: Sustainable Engineering and Technology Innovation and Application. IOP Conference Series: Material Science and Engineering.420: 012066. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/420/1/012066
Malau S, Lumbanraja P, Pandiangan S, Tarigan JR, Tindaon F. 2018c. Performance of Coffea arabica L. in changing climate of North Sumatra of Indonesia. Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica. 49(4): 340-349. https://doi.org/10.2478/sab-2018-0041
Malau S, Siagian A, Sirait B, Ambarita H, Pandiangan S, Sihotang MR, Naibaho B, Simanjuntak R. 2018d. Variability of organoleptic quality of Arabica coffee. Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi. 33(3): 241-245. https://doi.org/10.7161/omuanajas.405418
Malau S, SiagianA, Sihotang MR, Simanjuntak R, Hutabarat, NDM R. 2019a.Saepo Modi and Correlation among Statistical Methods for Measuring of Phenotypic Stability. Jurnal Pertanian Tropik. 6(2): 238-249. https://doi.org/10.32734/ jpt.v6i2.3159
Malau S, Sihotang MR, Simanjuntak R. 2019b. Effect of genotype and storage duration on taste and ecovalence of roasted beans of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabicaL.). Tarumanagara International Conference on the Applications of Technology and Engineering. IOP Conference Series: Material Science and Engineering. 508: 012115.https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/508/1/012115
Malau S. 2019a. Resistance variability of arabica coffee genotypes (Coffea arabica L.) to leaf rust disease (Hemileia vastatrix). Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. 6(2): 69-78. https://doi.org/10.21082/jtidp.v6n2.2019.p69-78
Malau, S. 2019b. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation among taste attributes and weight of green bean in Arabica coffee (Coffea Arabica L.). 2nd International Conference on Agriculture, Environment, and Food Security (AEFS) 2018. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.260: 012120. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/260/1/012120
Mayo O. 1987. The Theory of Plant Breeding. New York (US): Oxford University Press. 334p.
McCook S. 2006. Global rust belt: Hemileia vastatrix and the ecological integration of world coffee production since 1850. Journal of Global History 1(2): 177-195. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1740022 80600012X
Quinn GP, Keough MJ. 2002. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge (EN): Cambridge University Press. NY. 537p. https:// doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511806384
Rodrigues MN, Ferrao RG, Fonseca AF. Mendonca RF, Martins LD, Tomaz MA. 2012. Crop yield of conilon coffee plants of different levels of vegetative vigor and rust severity. Nucleus. 9(2): 1-6. https:// doi.org/10.3738/1982.2278.780
Sera GH, Sera T, Fonseca IC, de B, Ito DS. 2010. Resistance to leaf rust in coffee cultivars. Coffee Science. 5(1): 59-66.
Silva-Acuña R, Maffia LA, Zambolim L, Berger RD. 1999. Incidence-Severity relationship in the pathosystem Coffea Arabica-Hemeleia vastatrix. Plant Disease. 83: 186-188. https://doi.org/ 10.1094/PDIS.19184.108.40.206
Siska RKW, Lubis L, Lisnawita. 2018. Serangan Karat Daun Kopi (Hemileia vastatrix B et Br) pada Tanaman Kopi Arabika di Perkebunan Rakyat Kabupaten Mandailing Natal Sumatera Utara. ARN Cofference Series. 1: 82-86. https://doi.org/10.32734/anr.v1i1.101
Sudrajat A. 2009. Mapping the Oldeman Schmidth-Fergusson climate classifications as an effort to utilize climate resources in natural resource management in North Sumatra. [Thesis]. Medan (ID): North Sumatra University.
Talhinhas P, Batista D, Diniz I, Vieira A, Silva DN, Loureiro A, Tavares S, Pereira AP, Azinheira HG, Guerra-Guimara L, Varzea V, Silva M, do Z, Ceu. 2017. The Coffee Leaf Rust pathogen Hemileia vastatrix: One and a half centuries around the tropics: Coffee Leaf Rust caused by Hemileia vastatrix. Molecular Plant Pathology. 18(8): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12512
Unigarro-Muñoz CA, Hernández-Arredondo JD, Montoya-Restrepo EC, Medina-Rivera RD, Ibarra-Ruales LN,Carmona-González CY, Flórez-Ramos CP. 2015. Estimation of leaf area in coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L.) of the Castillo variety. Bragantia, Campina. 74(4): 412-416.
Zeru A, Assefa F, Adugna G, Hindorf H. 2009. Occurrence of fungal diseases of Coffea arabica L. in Montane rainforests of Ethiopia. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality. 2: 148-151. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-4499.0026
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).