Vol. 6 No. 2 (1999): Media Veteriner
Sperm motility is the main problem for honeybee's reproduction both in natural and in artificial insemination. Sperm produced only by sexually mature drone. Drone with high semen volumes can be seen by the external morphology like hairy in back and the existence of yellow stripes on their black abdomen. Semen samples were collected from the drone by the massage technique; these consist of massaging the abdomen of drone. This massage proceeded until penis and semen cream to yellow color, was produced. Semen taken out with spuit (3 ml) that contain a modification dilution media called "Kiev". Semen samples were collected; volume, abnormalities and motility were measured. The sexually mature drones were observed in 99.06% (213/215) drones with rare hair in back and 76.28% (164/215) with existence of the yellow stripes in the black abdomen. The color of sperm is yellowish white, which is different from mucous that is white. The average volume of semen samples from each drone is 1.11 μl. The average length of sperm is 217.57 μm (107.50-412.50 μm). The average length of sperm is 7,52 μm (5-1O μm). It's flipped tails, broken tails, double tails, and double heads with an average of 19.83%, 12.75%, 6.42%, and 2,25% respectively can determine abnormalities of the sperm. To conduct the artificial insemination, drone sperm should always be available. For this reason sperm should be preserved in an optimal condition storage temperature (5°C, 27 °c and 37°C) and glucose concentration (0%, 0,3%, 0,6%, and 0,9%) containing in the dilution media. This condition can be affecting the sperm motility. The highest motility is achieved when the sperm is kept in 0,9% glucose concentration and storage in 5 °C temperature. In this condition 0.19x106 sperm/ml can survive up to 36 hours. Moreover, the higher concentration of sperm motility up to 36 hours is achieved when sperm is kept in 5 Celsius temperature with different leves of glucose in dilution media. However statistically interaction between glucose concentration and temperature levels does not give significant affects.
An experiment was carried out to ascertain the role of propionate on glucose synthesis using eight Brahman steers which were equipped with rumen and abomasal cannulae and fed a basal diet consisted of barley straw ad libitum, 150 g/head/d mineral mix and 500 ml molasses. In addition, 75 g urea dissolved in 1500 ml water was infused continuously to rumen to satisfy the requirement for rumen degradable nitrogen (RDN) using a peristaltic pump. Two animals served as control while the other six received, respectively, 100, 150, 200, 250, 400, and 500 g/h/d sodium propionate which were dissolved in urea. Following three weeks adaptation period, an indwelling catheter was inserted into both sides of jugular veins and about 24 hour latter each animal received a bolus injection of 0.3 mCi 2_3H glucose via one of their jugular vein catheter. Blood samples were withdrawn from the other side of the catether at intervals of 30,60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 minutes starting at the onset of 2_3H glucose administration. These samples were then assayed to allow a calculation of glucose entry rate (GER) assuming that the decay of specific radioactivity of 2_3H glucose followed a first order kinetic. The conversion efficiency of propionate to glucose synthesis was calculated by the difference between the increment of GER and the amount of propionate infused. The results showed that propionate infusion was associated with increased glucose entry and utilisation. The highest level of propionate infusion doubled the GER over that of control animals. This suggests that substantial amount of propionate had been converted into glucose. However, the increment in GER could not be accounted fully from the amount of propionate infused suggesting that the endogenous glucose entry varied markedly between animals. The conversion efficiency of propionate to glucose in this experiment ranged from -0.9 to 1.22.