Zeranol Residue Detected by HPLC in Bovine Meat from Three Different Cities in Java Island
Zeranol is one of non-steroidal hormonal growth promoters (HGP) that is still permitted to be used in some countries such as Australia, the United States, and others to increase weight gain. However, this non-steroidal HGP is not permitted in Indonesia. The use of zeranol to increase the growth of livestock can cause the occurrence of residue in livestock tissues and organs, having a great dangerous potential for human health. This study aimed to investigate the presence of zeranol residues in 105 samples of bovine meat collected from Jakarta, Surabaya, and Malang cities and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were added with the deproteinizing extractant of 0.2% metaphosphoric acid and acetonitrile (6:4, v/v), and purified using SAX SPE cartridge. Zeranol was then analyzed by HPLC using Shimp-pack VP-ODS (4.6x250 mm) column with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (40:60, v/v) as the mobile phase and detected on photo diode array detector at 262 nm. The recoveries of the method of 3 different concentrations (2, 5, and 10 ng/g) of zeranol were 73.96% to 103.48%. The detection limit and quantification limits were 0.54 ng/g and 1.80 ng/g, respectively. Zeranol residues were detected in 12 (11.43%) out of 105 samples at the concentration of 1.67 to 33.29 ng/g and 7 among them exceeding 2.0 ng/g. The results obtained in this study indicated that zeranol was still being used to increase cattle-meat production. Therefore, strict control must be implemented at all stages, from production to consumption, regarding the application of this HGP in livestock.
Badan Karantina Pertanian. 2018. Keputusan Kepala Badan Karantina Pertanian Nomor 2464/Kpts/KR.120/K/11/2018 Tentang Pedoman Monitoring terhadap Bahan Asal Hewan dan Hasil Bahan asal Hewan. Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia, Jakarta.
Bircher, S., M.L. Card, G. Zhai, Y.P. Chin, & J.L. Schnoor. 2015. Sorption, uptake, and biotransformation of 17β‐estradiol, 17α‐ethinylestradiol, zeranol, and trenbolone acetate by hybrid poplar. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 34: 2906-2913. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3166
CAC. 2014. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Procedural Manual: Principles for the Establishment of Codex Methods of Analysis. Accessed 10/12/2019. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3243e.pdf
CX/MRL 2-2018. 2018. Maximum residue limits (MRLs) and risk management recommendations (RMRS) for residues of veterinary drugs in foods. Downloaded from www.codex-alimentarius.org
Cayci M., A.S. Kilic, H.H. Oruc, & R. Sariyev. 2019. Screening of veterinary growth-promoting agent and antibacterial residues in beef cattle and broiler meats consumed in Bursa, Turkey. J. Res. Vet. Med. 38: 52-58.
Danial, R., H. Latief, & A. Indrawati. 2015. Deteksi residu hormon trenbolon asetat pada sapi siap potong impor asal Australia. Acta Veterinaria Indonesiana 3: 70-76. https://doi.org/10.29244/avi.3.2.70-76
Dusi, G., E. Bozzini, W. Assini, N. Tognoli, M. Gasparini, & E. Ferretti. 2009. Confirmatory method for the determination of resorcylic acid lactones in urine sample using immunoaffinity cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta. 637: 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.11.047
FDA. 2019. Guidelines for the Validation of Chemical Methods in Food, Feed, Cosmetics, and Veterinary Products. FDA Food Program. 3rd Edition. Accessed 10/12/2019. https://www.fda.gov/media/81810/download
Horie, M. & H. Nakazawa. 2000. Determination of trenbolone and zeranol in bovine muscle and liver by liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 882: 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00205-3
Hemmat, M.I., A.A. Reham, M.D. Omaima, & E.H. Asmaa. 2018. Survey on some hormonal residues in chicken meat, liver and kidneys. Benha Vet. Med. J. 34: 23-30. https://doi.org/10.21608/bvmj.2018.29409
Kart, A., M. Elmali, K. Yapar, & H. Yaman. 2008. Occurrence of zeranol in ground beef produced in Kars, Turkey. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 7: 630-632
Kennedy, D.G., S.A. Hewitt, J.D. McEvoy, J.W. Currie, A. Cannavan, W.J. Blanchflower, & C.T. Elliot. 1998. Zeranol is formed from Fusarium spp. toxins in cattle in vivo. Food Addit. Contam. 15: 393-400. https://doi.org/10.1080/02652039809374658
Khadijah, S., H. Latif, & A.W. Sanjaya. 2015. Residu zeranol dalam daging sapi yang diimpor dari Australia dan Selandia Baru melalui Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok. J. Veteriner. 16: 592-598. https://doi.org/10.19087/jveteriner.2015.16.4.592
Kleinoca, M., P. Zollner, H. Kahlbacher, W. Hochsteiner, & W. Lindner. 2002. Metabolic of the mycotoxin zearalenon and the growth promoter zeranol n urine, liver and muscle of heifers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 4769-4776. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020160p
Kumar, V.S., C. Rajan, P. Divya, & S. Sasikumar, S. 2018. Adverse effect consumer’s health caused by hormones administered in cattle. Int. Food Res. J. 25: 1-10
Kukhtyn, M., V. Salata, R. Pelenyo, V. Selskyi, Y. Horiuk, N. Boltyk, L. Ulko, & V. Dobrovolsky. 2020. Investigation of zeranol in beef of Ukrainian production and its reduction with various technological processing. Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 14: 95-100. https://doi.org/10.5219/1224
Lee, H.C., C.M. Chen, J.T. Wei, & H.Y. Chiu. 2018. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015. J. Food Drug Anal. 26: 565-571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2017.06.008
Liu, Y., C.Z. Zhang, X.Y. Yu, Z.Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, R.R. Liu, X.J. Liu, & Z.M. Gong. 2007. Development and evaluation of immunoassay for zeranol in bovine urine. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B. 8: 900-905. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2007.B0900
Matraszek-Zuchowska, I., B. Wozniak, & J. Zmudzki. 2012. Determination zeranol and its metabolites in bovine muscle tissue with gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy. 56: 335-342. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10213-012-0059-4
Matraszek-Zuchowska, I., B. Wozniak & J. Zmudzki. 2013. Determination of zeranol, taleranol, zearalanone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol and zearalenone in urine by LC-MS/MS. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 30: 987-994. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2013.787656
Mor, F., F. Şahindokuyucu, K. Kav, & A. Köker. 2011. Determination of zeranol and trenbolone residues in tissue samples of cattle. Eurasian J. Vet. Sci. 27: 235-240.
Salata, V. 2018. The problem of control of zeranol – a growth promoter of ruminant in beef. Scientific Messenger of LNU of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. 20: 53-55. https://doi.org/10.32718/nvlvet8809
Şevik, S.E. & N. D. Ayaz. 2017. Investigation of hormone residues in beef. Vet. Hekim Der. Derg. 88: 13-20.
van Bennekom, E.O., L. E.H.M. Brouwer, H. L. Hooijerink, & M.W.F. Nielen. 2002. Confirmatory analysis method for zeranol, its metabolites and related mycotoxins in urine by liquid chromatography-negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta. 473: 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(02)00975-3
Yücel, U.M., N. Atasoy, O. Ö. İşleyici, & I. Türel. 2018. Determination of some anabolic hormone residues in cattle meat consumption in Van, Turkey. Int. J. Adv. Res. Int. 6: 129-139. https://doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/7499
Copyright (c) 2020 Tropical Animal Science Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.