RETENSI FORTIFIKAN VITAMIN A DAN β-KAROTEN DALAM MINYAK GORENG SAWIT SELAMA PEMASAKAN
AbstractThis study was carried out to obtain information on fortificants (vitamin A and β-carotene) stability in fortified palm oil. Four types of fortified palm oils were used in this research: palm oil fortified with red palm oil or RPO (containing β-carotene) 47.08 IU/g, vitamin A (Retinyl palmitate) 56.59 IU/g, combination A (targeted concentration of 30 IU β-carotene RPO and 15 IU vitamin A) 45.65 IU/g and combination B (targeted concentration of 15 IU β-carotene RPO and 30 IU vitamin A) 45.95 IU/g. These fortified oils were then used for shallow frying and sautéing (stir frying). Tofu was used in shallow frying and the oil was reused three times each day for several days. Meanwhile, bean sprout was used for sautéing. The used oils after shallow frying was then analyzed for vitamin A and β-carotene retention, as well as its other cha-racteristics such as peroxide value and free fatty acid (FFA) content. The sauted sprouts was also ana-lyzed for its fortificants retention. The capacity of oil to retain vitamin A and β-carotene decreased over the repeated use in frying. During the first frying, the retention of fortificants was not significanly differrent (P=0.05). In the second and third frying, β-carotene was less retained than the vitamin A. Fortificant combi-nation A and B had similar stability. The peroxide value of the oils increased until the second frying, then decreased. Starting the fourth use, the FFA percentage has not increased much hardly increased. The highest yield of fortificant in sautéed sprouts was vitamin A (63.37%), followed by combination B (53.42%), combination A (50.60%), and RPO (34.86%). Sautéed sprout (150 g) contained fortificant contributing to the fulfillment of vitamin A adequacy of 32.71-92.93%.
[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 1984. Official Method of Analysis of The Asso-ciation of Official Analytical Chemist 14th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemist Inc, Arlington,
[AOCS] American Oil Chemist Society. 1998. Official Methods and
Recommended Practice of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 5th
Edition. Champaign III, AOCS Press, USA.
[BSN] Badan Standarisasi Nasional. 2012. Minyak goreng sawit. http://sisni.bsn.go.id/index.php/sni _main/sni/detail_sni/14332 [14 Maret 2013].
Abdulkarim SM, Long K, Lai OM, Muhammad SKS, Ghazali HM. 2007. Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in compare-son with other vegetable oils. Food Chem 105: 1382-1389. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.0 13.
Ali ASM, Abdurrhman AM. 2013. Determination of free fatty acids in palm oil samples by non-aqueous flow injection using salicyaldehide-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone as colorimetric reagent. Chem Mater Eng 1: 96-103.
Achadi E, Arifah A, Muslimatun S, Anggondowati T, Setiarini A. 2010. Efektivitas program fortifikasi minyak goreng dengan vitamin A terhadap sta-tus gizi anak sekolah di Kota Makassar. J Kes Mas Nasional 4: 255-261. DOI: 10.21109/kes mas.v4i6.164.
Achir N, Randrianatoandro VA, Bohoun P, Laffargue A, Avallone S. 2010. Kinetics study of β-caro-tene and lutein degradation in oils during heat treatment. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 112: 349-361. DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.200900165.
Akhtar H, Tahir L, Mahmud S, Hamid S. 2012. Loss of vitamin A in fortified edible oils and ghee du-ring cooking in asian traditional style. Bangla-desh J Sci Ind Res 47: 243-248. DOI: 10.3329/ bjsir.v47i2.11461.
Andarwulan N, Gitapratiwi D, Laillou A, Fitriani D, Hariyadi P, Moench-Pfanner R, Martianto D. 2014. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortifica-tion is an important criteria to achieve a health impact. Nutrients 6: 5051-5060. DOI: 10.3390/ nu6115051.
Ayustaningwarno F. 2012. Proses pengolahan dan aplikasi minyak sawit merah pada industri pa-ngan. Vitasphere 2: 1-11.
Bohn T. 2008. Bioavailability of non-provitamin A carotenoids. Curr Nutr Food Sci 4: 240-258. DOI: 10.2174/157340108786263685.
Chiu MC, Coutinho C, Gonçalves LAG. 2009. Caro-tenoids concentration of palm oil using mem-brane technology. Desalination 245: 783-786. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2009.03.002.
Dever JT, Surles R, Davis CR, Tanumihardjo SA. 2011. [alpha]-retinol is distributes through se-rum retinol-binding protein-independent mecha-nisms in the lactating sow-nursing piglet Dyad1-3. J Nutr 141: 42-47. DOI: 10.3945/jn.110.1275 97.
Fiedler JL, Afidra R. 2010. Vitamin A fortification in Uganda: comparing the feasibility, coverage, costs, and cost-effectiveness of fortifying vege-table oil and sugar. Food Nutr Bull 31: 193-205. DOI: 10.1177/156482651003100202.
Folch J, Lees M, Stanley HS. 1956. A simple me-thod for the isolation and purification of total li-pides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226: 497-509.
Gökmen V, Palazglu TK, Senyuva HZ. 2006. Rela-tion between the acrylamide formation and time-temperature history of surface and core regions of french fries. J Food Eng 77: 972-976. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng-2005.03.030.
Kim HJ, Hahm TS, Min DB. 2007. Hydroperoxide as a prooxidant in the oxidative stability of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 84: 349-355. DOI: 10. 1007/s11746-007-1044-6.
Marliyati SA, Hardinsyah, Rucita N. 2010. Peman-faatan RPO (red palm oil) sebagai sumber pro-vitamin A alami pada produk mi instan untuk anak balita. J Gizi Pangan 5: 31-38. DOI: 10.25 182/jgp.2010.5.1.31-38.
Meiliana, Roekistiningsih, Sutjiati E. 2014. Pengaruh proses pengolahan daun singkong (Manihot es-culeta crantz) dengan berbagai perlakuan ter-hadap kadar β-karoten. Indonesian J Hum Nutr 1: 23-34.
Nadimin, Tamrin A. 2013. Pengaruh fortifikasi vita-min A pada minyak goreng curah terhadap ting-kat kesukaan konsumen pada makanan go-rengan. Media Gizi Pangan 17: 62-69.
Oni OA. 2012. Consumer willingness to pay for vitamin A fortification in vegetable oil in south western Nigeria: a contingent valuation app-roach. Nigerian J Agric Food Envir 8: 66-73.
Puysuwan L, Chavasit V, Sungpuag P, Hedgar D, Punchivai T. 2007. Feasibility and use of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oils among consu-mers of different socioeconomic status in Thai-land. Food Nutr Bull 28: 181-188. DOI: 10.1177/ 156482650702800207.
Souganidis E, Laillou A, Leyvraz M, Moench-Pfanner R. 2013. A comparison of retinyl pal-mitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address vitamin A deficiency. Nutrients 5: 3257-32711. DOI: 10.3390/nu5083257.
Van Rooyen J, Esterhuye AJ, Engelbrecht AM, Du Toit EF. 2008. Health benefit of a natural caro-tenoid rich oil: a proposed mechanism of pro-tecttion against ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17: 316-319.