LESSON LEARNED FROM MANGROVE REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN INDONESIA
Indonesia as an archipelagic country more than 17,504 islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They grow extensively in the five big islands (Jawa, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua). At the year of 2009, Agency of Survey Coordination and National Mapping (Bakosurtanal) of Indonesia reported the existing mangrove forest area in Indonesia of about 3,244,018 ha, however Directorate General of Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry, Ministry of Forestry (Ditjen RLPS MoF) of Indonesia at 2007 reported about 7,758,411 ha of mangrove area in Indonesia (including existing vegetated mangrove area). It was further reported that those mangroves were 30.7% in good condition, 27.4% moderate-destroyed, and 41.9% heavy-destroyed. In order to rehabilitate destroyed mangrove ecosystems, Indonesia applies at least three type of planting designs (square planting design, zig zag planting design, and cluster planting design) and eight planting techniques (“banjar harian” technique, bamboo pole technique, guludan technique, water break technique, huge polybag technique, ditch muddy technique, huge mole technique, cluster technique). Generally, in Indonesia Rhizophora spp. are used for mangrove rehabilitation and/or restoration with the spacing of 1x1 m spending varied planting cost based on the site local condition and planting technique used. The mangrove planting ranged from about Rp. 14.2 million using propagules to Rp. 18.5 million using cultured seedlings. Recently, local community used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems). So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity) as well as their abundance for significantly supporting the welfare of coastal community.
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