• Cecep Kusmana Silviculture Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agriculture University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
Keywords: agroforestry technique, local community, mangrove rehabilitation, planting design, planting technique


Indonesia as an archipelagic country more than 17,504 islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They grow extensively in the five big islands (Jawa, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua). At the year of 2009, Agency of Survey Coordination and National Mapping (Bakosurtanal) of Indonesia reported the existing mangrove forest area in Indonesia of about 3,244,018 ha, however Directorate General of Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry, Ministry of Forestry (Ditjen RLPS MoF) of Indonesia at 2007 reported about 7,758,411 ha of mangrove area in Indonesia (including existing vegetated mangrove area). It was further reported that those mangroves were 30.7% in good condition, 27.4% moderate-destroyed, and 41.9% heavy-destroyed. In order to rehabilitate destroyed mangrove ecosystems, Indonesia applies at least three type of planting designs (square planting design, zig zag planting design, and cluster planting design) and eight planting techniques (“banjar harian” technique, bamboo pole technique, guludan technique, water break technique, huge polybag technique, ditch muddy technique, huge mole technique, cluster technique). Generally, in Indonesia Rhizophora spp. are used for mangrove rehabilitation and/or restoration with the spacing of 1x1 m spending varied planting cost based on the site local condition and planting technique used. The mangrove planting ranged from about Rp. 14.2 million using propagules to Rp. 18.5 million using cultured seedlings. Recently, local community used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems). So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity) as well as their abundance for significantly supporting the welfare of coastal community.


[Bakosurtanal] Badan Koordinasi Survey dan Pemetaan Nasional, 2009. Peta Mangroves Indonesia. Cibinong: Pusat Survey Sumber Daya Alam Laut Badan Koordinasi Survey dan Pemetaan Nasional.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005. Global Forest Resources Assesmen. 2005 thematic study on mangroves, Thailand: DRAFT, AUGUST 2005. FAO Forestry Departement, Rome.

Giesen, W., S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren, and L. Scholten, 2006. Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia. FAO and Wetlands International.

Harger, J. R. E, 1982. Major problems in the functional analysis of mangrove in Southeast Asia. Paper presented at the symposium on mangrove forest ecosystem productivity, April 20-22, 1982, Bogor.

Kusmana, C., 1993. A study on mangrove forest management based on ecological data in East Sumatra, Indonesia. PhD. Dissertion, Kyoto University, Japan.

Kusmana, C., 2010. Konservasi dan Pengelolaan Mangrove. Presented on: Konferensi dan Pameran Nasional “Penyelamatan Hutan Pantai dan Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Masyarakat Pesisir”, 23 November 2010.

Lewis, R. R., 2001. Mangrove Restoration. Cost and Benefits of Successful Ecological Restoration. Proccedings of the Mangrove Valuation Workshop, University Sains, Malaysia, Penang, 4-8 April 2001. Cohosted by the Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.

Lewis, R.R. and B. Strever. 2000. Restoration of mangrove habitat. WRP Technical Notes Collection (EDRCTNWRP-VN-RS-3.2), US Army Enginer Research and Development Centre, Vicksburg, MS. www.wes.army.mil/mil/el/wrp.

Saenger, P., E. J. Hegerl, and J. D. S. Davie. 1983. Global status of mangrove ecosystems. IUCN. Commision on Ecology Number 3.

Snedaker, S. C., 1978. Mangrove: their value and perpetuation. Nature and Resources 14:6-13.

Soegiarto, A., 1984. The Mangrove Ecosystem in Indonesia: Its Problems and Management. In: Teas HJ. (Ed.). Physiology and Management of Mangroves: 69-78. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

Tomlinson, P. B., 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press.