ANALISIS DAYA SAING SEKTOR INDUSTRI PRIORITAS INDONESIA DALAM MENGHADAPI PASAR ASEAN

Isventina Isventina, Nunung Nuryartono, Manuntun Parulian Hutagaol

Abstract


This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence competitiveness of Indonesia’s priority industrial sector in facing the ASEAN market by using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and panel data analysis. The study period was in 2001-2013 and variables are used, among others, the export price of products in the industry priorities, labor productivity, fixed capital and riil exchange rate. Based on the calculation of the level of competitiveness by using RCA, showed that the Indonesia's priority industrial sectors have strong competitive (RCA>1) in the ASEAN market, except for the chemical industry and machinery and equipment industry. That is, Indonesia has a comparative advantage in most of the priority industrial sectors, so that it can be used to support the government's strategy to expand the national industrial market to the ASEAN region. While the results of the panel data analysis showed that the export price is the most influential factor for the competitiveness of priority industrial sectors in Indonesia. In this case, the export price is a reflection of the production cost. The high of production cost indicates that the purchase price of inputs by exporting companies is also high, so that the export price was high. Because the essence of competitiveness is relatively low cost, the high export prices showed a decreasing competitiveness. Other factors that affect are the real exchange rate and labor productivity. Rupiah depreciation can encourage the growth of exports, which in turn can improve competitiveness. Meanwhile, the development of human resources that make industrial policy was originally based on cheap labor and natural resources can be developed into a productivity-based industries are supported by qualified human resources as well as science and high technology. On the other hand, the addition of variable fixed capital does not affect the competitiveness of priority industrial sectors. This is because the impact of the increased competitiveness of the addition of fixed capital in a given year is not directly felt in the year, but will be felt in the next few years. Thus, the strategy can be formulated to improve the competitiveness of the priority industrial sectors, including developing the upstream industry and among industry based on natural resources and the control of exports of raw materials, develop human resources industry players in the Indonesia’s priority industrial sectors with training and innovation activities, developing downstream industries as well as the increase in value-added products in the priority industrial sectors through product diversification and improve the pattern of cooperation with the manufacturers of other countries in the ASEAN region through the export promotion.

 

Keywords: ASEAN Integration, Manufacturing Industry, Competitiveness, Panel Data Analysis


Full Text:

PDF

References


Anwar MF, Darsono, Agustono. 2012. Analisis Daya Saing Industri Furnitur Rotan Kabupaten Sukoharjo. [Tesis]. Surakarta (ID): Universitas Sebelas Maret.

Arianti RK, Lubis AD. 2011. Analisis Daya Saing dan Kesiapan Indonesia dalam Rangka Integrasi ASEAN: Studi Kasus Automotives, Rubber Based dan Agro Based Products. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan. 5(1): 1-21. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Perdagangan.

Aysegul S, Hobijn B. 2006. On Flexibity and Productivity. Meeting Papers 737, Society for Economic Dynamics.

Badan Pusat Statistik. Statistik Industri Besar dan Sedang. [Internet]. [Diunduh Januari 2015]. Tersedia pada: http://www.bps.go.id.

Balassa B. 1961. The Theory of Economic Integration. Homewood: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

Baltagi BH. 2005. Econometric Analysis of Panel Data. London: John Wiley & Sons LTD.

Bloch H, McDonal JT. 2000. Import Compatition and Labour Productivity. Melbourne Working Paper, No. 9, Tahun 2000. Melbourne (AUS): University of Melbourne.

Wali A. 2014. Daya Saing Indonesia dalam Menghadapi ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015. [Internet]. [Diakses 2 April 2014]. Tersedia pada: http://adriwali.blogspot.com/2014/ 04/daya-saing-indonesia-dalam menghadapi asean economic community.html.

Efendi. 2013. Analysis of Indonesia Textile Industry Competitiveness in Regulation Theory Perspective.

Firdaus M. 2011. Aplikasi Ekonomatrika untuk Data Panel dan Time Series. Bogor (ID): IPB Press.

[GAPMMI] Gabungan Pengusaha Makanan dan Minuman Seluruh Indonesia. [Internet]. [Diakses 19 Oktober 2015]. Tersedia pada: http://www.gapmmi.or.id Versi Online: 22 | Edisi Juli 2015 http://www.gapmmi.or.id/?pilih=li hat&id=96.

Idris F. 2007. Kebijakan dan Strategi Pengembangan Industri Nasional, Jakarta (ID): Departemen Perindustrian.

IMD World Competitiveness. 2014. Peringkat Daya Saing Industri Manufaktur Negara-negara ASEAN. [Internet]. [Diunduh 22 Mei 2015]. Tersedia pada: http://www.imd.org/news/2014-W orld-Competitiveness.cfm.

Isftifadah N. 2012. Peluang dan Tantangan Integrasi Ekonomi ASEAN bagi Perekonomian Indonesia. [Tesis]. Surabaya (ID): Universitas Airlangga.

Karakaya E, Ozgen. 2002. Economic Feasibility of Turkey’s Economic Integration with the EU: Perspectives from Trade Creation and Trade Diversion.

Kementerian Perdagangan. 2011. Kajian Dampak Kesepakatan Perdagangan Bebas terhadap Daya Saing Produk Manufaktur Indonesia. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Perdagangan.

Kementerian Perindustrian. 2013. Pertumbuhan Industri Manufaktur Ditarget 7,14%. Media Industri No. 01. 2013. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Perindustrian.

_____________________. 2013. Mengukur Kesiapan Industri Nasional Jelang AEC 2015. Media Industri No. 02. 2013. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Perindustrian.

_____________________. 2015. Meningkatkan Daya Saing Melalui Hilirisasi Industri. Media Industri No. 01. 2015. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Perindustrian.

Miftahudin H. 2015 Mei 15. Hadapi MEA, ini 9 Sektor Industri yang Jadi Fokus Kemenperin. Metro News. [Internet]. [Diakses 22 Mei 2015]. Tersedia pada: http://ekonomi.metrotvnews.com/r ead/2015/05/15/126237/hadapi-me a-ini-9-sektor-industri-yang-jadi-fo kus-kemenperin.

Porter ME. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Free Press, New York.

Sholeh. 2013. Persiapan Indonesia dalam Menghadapi AEC (ASEAN Economic Community) 2015. Jurnal Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, 1(2): 509-522. Samarinda (ID): Universitas Mulawarman.

Siggel E. 2006. International Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage: A survey and a proposal for measurement. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 6(1): 137-159.

Suarez MDLC. 2001. Trade Creation and Trade Diversion for Mercosur. Disertation. Boston University.

Subhan, Sumarwan U, Daryanto A, Kirbrandoko. 2014. Strategy of Competitiveness of Urea Industry in the International Market and its Implication Toward the Development of Urea Industry in Indonesia. International Journal of Business and Management Reveiew, 2(5): 14-30. United Kingdom (UK): Europan Centre for Research Training and Development.

Sugiyanto. 2004. Peningkatan Daya Saing Ekonomi Indonesia. Jurnal Dinamika Ekonomi dan Bisnis, 1(1): 14-27.

Sulistiani. 2014. Analisis Komparatif Daya Saing Industri Manufaktur di ASEAN. [Tesis]. Medan (ID): Universitas Sumatera Utara.

Tambunan T, Sitepu R. 2012. Ekspor dan Daya Saing. Policy Paper No. 2, Maret 2012. Tim ACTIVE, Kadin Indonesia dan European Union. Jakarta (ID): Kadin Indonesia.

Tambunan T. 2004. Globalisasi dan Perdagangan Internasional. Bogor (ID): Ghalia Indonesia.

[WITS] World Integrated Trade Solution. [Internet]. [Diunduh April 2015]. Tersedia pada: http://wits.worldbank.org/WITS/WITS/AdvanceQuery/RawTradeData/QueryDefinitionSelecion.aspx? Page=RawTradeData&querytoken =450968&selection=Existing.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29244/jekp.4.1.71-93

Editorial Office

JURNAL EKONOMI DAN KEBIJAKAN PEMBANGUNAN

Department  Economics
Faculty of Economics and Management, IPB University.
Agatis Street, Campus of IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: (0251) 8626602 ; Email: jekp@apps.ipb.ac.id Website: https://jurnal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jekp/index

 

 

 

Creative Commons License
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.