ANALISIS INKLUSI KEUANGAN DAN PEMERATAAN PENDAPATAN DI INDONESIA

Bintan Badriatul Ummah, Nunung Nuryartono, Lukytawati Anggraeni

Abstract


Recent study showed that increasing access and usage of banking services reduce income inequality. Nowdays banking access in Indonesia is increasing but income equality gap is widening. Therefore, by using secondary data from 33 provinces 2007- 2011, this paper aims to measure the level of access and usage for financial services across provinces in Indonesia by Index of Financial Inclusion, analyze the factors that affect financial inclusion by panel tobit regression, and describe the relationship between financial inclusion and income distribution in Indonesia. The results show that the level of financial inclusion in Indonesia is classified as low. The size of the economy and income inequality positively affect the level of financial inclusion. Opposite the research hypothesis, widening income inequality lead to higher financial inclusion in Indonesia. Moreover, the number of mobile phone and the internet user affect positively the level of financial inclusion in Indonesia. Income inequality and financial inclusion has a one-way relationship, income inequality affects financial inclusion in Indonesia but does not vice versa.

Keywords : Financial Inclusion, income inequality


Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen F, Demirguc-Kunt A, Klapper L, Peria MSM. 2012. The Foundations of Financial Inclusion: Understanding Ownership and Use of Formal Accounts. Development Research Group, Finance and Private Sector Development Team. World Bank : Working paper No 6290.

Andrianaivo M, Kpodar K. (2012). Mobile Phones, Financial Inclusion, and Growth. Review of Economics and Institution. Vol.3 No.2

Ang JB. 2010. Finance and Inequality: The Case of India. Shouthern Economic Journal. 76(3):738-761

Anggraeni L. 2009. Factor Influencing and Credit Constraints of a Financial Self-Help Group in a Remote Rural Area: The Case of ROSCA and ASCRA in Kemang Village West Java. Journal of Applied Sciences. 9(11):2067- 2077.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik 2014. Tersedia pada http://www.bps.go.id [12 Januari 2014].

[BI] Bank Indonesia. Statistik Perbankan Indonesia 2013. Tersedia pada http://www.bi.go.id/id/statistik/per bankan/indonesia/Default.aspx [9 Februari 2014].

____ Bank Indonesia. Statistik Perbankan Indonesia 2014. Tersedia pada Tersedia pada http://www.bi.go.id/id/statistik/per bankan/indonesia/Default.aspx [9 Februari 2014].

____ Bank Indonesia. 2014. Booklet Keuangan Inklusif Bank Indonesia. Tersedia pada http://www.bi.go.id/id/perbankan/ keuanganinklusif/edukasi/Content s/Buku%20Saku%20Keuangan% 20Inklusif.pdf [25 September 2014].

Beck T, Demirguc-Kunt A, Levine R. 2007. Finance, Inequality and the Poor. J Econ Growth. 12:27-49.

Beck T, Demirguc-Kunt A, Peria MSM. 2006. Reaching Out: Access to and Use of Banking Services Across Country. Journal of Financial Economics. 85:234-266.

Cheng X, Degryse H. 2006. The Impact of Bank and Non-Bank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China. Tersedia pada https://feb.kuleuven.be/drc/CES/research/dpspapers/dps06/dps0608.pdf [2 Februari 2014].

Clarke GRG, Lixin Colin Xu, Heng Fu Zou. 2006. Finance and Income Inequality: What Do the Data Tell Us?. Shoutern Economic Journal. 72(3): 578-596.

Demirguc-Kunt A, Beck T, Honohan P. 2008. Finance for All? Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access. Washington, DC (US): World Bank.

Demirguc-Kunt A, Klapper L. 2012. Measuring Financial Inclusion The Global Financial Index. World Bank: Working Paper No 6025.

European Commission Report. 2008. Financial Services Provision And Prevention of Financial Exclusion.

Ferreira Candida. 2014. Panel Granger Causality between Bank Efficeincy and Market Concentration in the European Union. Research in Applied Economics. 6(1):107-127

Gerdeva A, Rhyne E. 2011. Opportunities ond Obstacles to Financial Inclusion. Center of Financial Inclusion at ACCION International No.12.

Greenwood J. and Jovanovic B. (1990). Financial development, growth, and the distribution of income. J Pol Econ. 98(5):076-107

Hansen BE. 2004. Econometrics. Madison (US) : University of Wisconsin

Hayashi Fumio. 2000. Econometrics. New Jersey (US) : Princeton University Press

Jalilian Hossein, Kirckpatrick Colin. 2002. Financial Development and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries. International Journal of Finance and Economics. 7: 97- 108.

Konya, L. (2006). Exports and rowth: Granger Causality analysis on OECD countries with a panel data approach. Economic Modelling. 23:978-992.

Levine Ross. Juni 1997. Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda. Journal of Economic Literature. 35(2):688-726.

Leyshon A. and Thrift N. 1995. Geographies of Financial Exclusion: Financial Abandonment in Britain and the United States. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 20(3):312-341.

Mago Stephen, Chitokwindo Sibert. 2014. The Impact of Mobile Banking on Financial Inclusion in Zimbabwe: A Case of Masvingo Province. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol.5 No.9.

Mishkin Federic S. 2008. Ekonomi Uang, Perbankan, dan Pasar Keuangan. Lana S dan Beta YG, penerjemah; Ika PS, editor. Jakarta (ID): Penerbit Salemba Empat. Terjemahan dari: The Economic of Money, Banking, and Financial Market. Ed Ke-8.

[OJK] Ototritas Jasa Keuangan. Laporan Triwulanan OJK Tahun 2014. Tersedia pada http://www.ojk.go.id/ojkterbitkan-laporan-triwulan-itahun-2014 [12 September 2014]

Oluwatayo Isaac. 2013. Banking the unbanked in rural southwest Nigeria: Showcasing mobile phones as mobile banks among farming households. Joournal of Financial Services Marketing. 18:65-73.

Sanjaya I Made. 2014. Inklusi Keuangan dan Pertumbuhan Inklusif sebagai Strategi Pengentasan Kemiskinan di Indonesia [Tesis]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Sarma Mandira. 2012. I Index of Financial Inclusion – A measure of financial sector inclusiveness. Berlin Working Papers on Money, Finance, Trade and development. Working Paper No.07/2012.

Sarma Mandira, Jesim Pais. 2011. Financial Inclusion and Development. J Int Dev. 23:613- 628.

Shahbaz M, Islam F. 2011. Financial Development and Income Inequality in Pakistan: An Application of ARDL Approach. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA). 17:13.

Tiwari AK, Shahbaz M, Islam F. 2013. Does financial development increase rural-urban income inequality? Cointegration analysis in the case of Indian economy. Int J Soc. 40(2):151- 168.

Van der Werff AD, Hogarth JM, Peach ND. 2013. A Cross-Country Analysis of Financial Inclusion within the OECD. Consumer Interest Annual. Volume 59.

Wachira MI, Kihiu EN. 2012. Impact of Financial Literacy on Access to Financial Services in Kenya. International Journal of Business an Social Sience. Vol 3 No.19.

[WB] World Bank. 2009. Measuring Access to Financial Services around the World. Washington DC (US): The World Bank Group

_____ World Bank. 2013. Global Financial Index. Tersedia pada http://data.Bank Dunia.org/datacatalog/financial_inclusion [17 Februari 2013]




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29244/jekp.4.1.1-27

Editorial Office

JURNAL EKONOMI DAN KEBIJAKAN PEMBANGUNAN

Department  Economics
Faculty of Economics and Management, IPB University.
Agatis Street, Campus of IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia
Phone/Fax: (0251) 8626602 ; Email: jekp@apps.ipb.ac.id Website: https://jurnal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jekp/index

 

 

 

Creative Commons License
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.