ANALISIS DAMPAK EXPORT RESTRICTION KOMODITI PERTANIAN TERHADAP INDONESIA

Main Article Content

Dian Verawati Panjaitan
Steven Raja Ingot
Arie Mardiansyah
Leo M. Christoffel

Abstract

The discussion on Restrictions on Agricultural Exports (ER) in the World Trade Organization (WTO), which is a mechanism to temporarily stop the export of agricultural products aimed at preventing food shortages in exporting countries has been intensively negotiated. However, as a net importer of agricultural products and a member of the G33 countries, Indonesia must overcome the ER policy because it might have the potential to increase prices and threaten food security in the Indonesian domestic market. This study uses descriptive qualitative statistical analysis to determine the Import Dependency Ratio (IDR) and Independence Ratio (SSR) for five of Indonesia's main import agricultural products such as rice, corn, soybeans, wheat, and horticulture. Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis using GTAP ver.9 is also used to analyze the impact of restrictions on exports of agricultural products for the five products analyzed on macroeconomic and sectoral indicators. Based on IDR and SSR it can be concluded that almost all G33 countries are highly dependent on wheat imports, as many as 36 countries are dependent on imported wheat with IDR values ​​varying between 70% - 215%. The analysis shows that export restrictions will harm Indonesia's macroeconomic. However, by sector, Indonesian farmers and producers can take advantage of the impact of the export restriction policy as an opportunity to increase their production in the context of meeting domestic demand as a result of declining demand for imported food products in the country.


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Panjaitan, D. V., Ingot, S. R., Mardiansyah, A., & M. Christoffel, L. (2020). ANALISIS DAMPAK EXPORT RESTRICTION KOMODITI PERTANIAN TERHADAP INDONESIA. Jurnal Agribisnis Indonesia (Journal of Indonesian Agribusiness), 8(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.29244/jai.2020.8.1.1-16
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Dian Verawati Panjaitan, Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Manajemen, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Jl. Agatis Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor, Indonesia

References

Bouët dan Laborde. 2010. Economics of Export Taxation in a Context of Food risis A Theoretical and CGE Approach Contribution. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00994.

[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2016. (http://www.bps.go.id)

Brockmeier, M. 1996. A Graphical Exposition of GTAP Model, GTAP Technical Paper No. 8, Centre for Global Trade Analysis, Purde University.

CNN. 2015. Jumlah Lahan Berkurang, Produksi Padi Tahun Lalu Merosot. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/ekonomi/20150302151819-92-36104/jumlah-lahan-berkurang-produksi-padi-tahun-lalu-merosot/. Akses Tanggal 11 Februari 2017.

Christian dan Pearson. 1996. Implementing Quotas in GTAP using GEMPACK or How to Linearize an Inequality. GTAP Technical Paper No. 4.

Devarajan S., Go D., Schiff M. 1996. The Whys and Why Nots of Export Taxation. Policy Research Working Paper WPS 1684, Economics Division, The World Bank. Diete, Ian, dan Donald. 2005. Log Export Restriction and Trade Policies in the Philippines: bane or blessing to Sustainable Forest Management?. Forest Policy and Economics Vol. 7, pp. 187-198.

Elbehri.A, Leetmaa.S. 2002. How Significant Are Export Subsidies to Agricultural Trade? Trade and Welfare Implications of Global Reforms. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Agricultural Economics Association.

Estrades, Manuel dan Guillermo. 2016. The Role Of Export Restrictions In Agricultural Trade. This paper is a preliminary version of an IATRC Commissioned Paper, prepared for 2016 GTAP Conference.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 2019. http://www.fao.org/statistics/en/.

[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 2017. Agricultural export restrictions. FAO Support To The Wto Negotiations At The 11Th Ministerial Conference In Buenos Aires, No. 27.

Financedetik. 2017. RI Impor Beras di Awal Tahun 2017, Paling Banyak dari Pakistan. https://finance.detik.com/berita-ekonomi-bisnis/3448448/ri-impor-beras-di-awal-tahun-2017-paling-banyak-dari-pakistan. Akses Tanggal 11 April 2019.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Issues at Stake Relating to Agricultural Development, Trade and Food Security.

Hanani, N. 2012. Strategi Pencapaian Ketahanan Pangan Keluarga. E-Journal Ekonomi Pertanian, Vol.1, No, 2, pp. 1-10.

Hertel, T.W. Ianchovichina, E, an McDonald, B.J. 1997. Multi-region general equilibrium modeling chapter 9 in Francois J.F and Reinert, K.A (eds), Applied Methods for Trade Policy Analysis: A Handbook, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hertel, T.W dan Tsigas, M,E. 1999. Structure of GTAP, pp.13-73 in Hertel T.W. (ed), Global Trade Analysis: Modelling and Applications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Julitasari. 2014. Dampak Restriksi Perdagangan Terhadap Penawaran dan Permintaan Beras di Pasar Dunia dan Kinerja Perberasan Indonesia. Jurnal Manajemen dan Akuntansi, Vol. 3, No 2.

Kementerian Pertanian. 2018. Statistik Pertanian Pusdatin Kementan.

Kerkela.L, Niemi.J, Lehtonen H.K. 2005. The Impacts of WTO Export Subsidy Abolition on The Agri-Food Industry in The EU: A Preliminary Assessment. Discussion Paper.

Korinek, J. dan Bartos, J. 2012. Multilateralising Regionalism: Disciplines on Export Restrictions in Regional Trade Agreements, OECD Trade Policy Working Papers, No. 139, OECD Publishing.

Kompasiana. 2011. Indonesia Negara Penghasil Pangan yang Masih Impor Bahan Pangan. http://www.kompasiana.com/ ferrynang/indonesia-negara-penghasil-pangan-yang-masih-impor-bahan-pangan_550a1d6e8133117f1cb1e72d. Akses Tanggal 11 April 2019.

Kurniawati dan Sugiyanto. 2010. Kebijakan Cina Membatasi Ekspor LTJ (Logam Tanah Jarang) ke Amerika Serikat. e-SOSPOL No. I Vol. 1, pp. 34-44.

Julitasari, E. 2014. Dampak Restriksi Perdagangan Terhadap Penawaran dan Permintaan Beras di Pasar Dunia dan Kinerja Perberasan Indonesia. Jurnal Manajemen dan Akuntansi Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.64-80.

Maulana, M dan B Rachman. 2011. Harga Pembelian Pemerintah (HPP) Gabah-Beras Tahun 2010: Efektivitas dan Implikasinya Terhadap Kualitas dan Pengadaan oleh Bulog. Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian: 331-347.

Nurhemi, Shinta R.I. Soekro, Guruh Suryani R. 2014. Pemetaan Ketahanan Pangan di Indonesia: Pendekatan TFP dan Indeks Ketahanan Pangan. Working Paper No.4. Jakarta: Bank Indonesia.

Oktaviani R. 2001. The Impact of APEC Trade Liberalization on Indonesian Economy and Agricultural Sector. Unpublished Dissertation. Sydney University. Sydney.

Oktaviani, R. 2009. Impact of APEC Trade Liberalisation on Indonesian Economy. Lambourck Academic Publishing. Germany.

Piermartini. 2004. The Role of Export Taxes in the Field of Primary Commodities. https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/discussion_papers4_e.pdf. Akses Tanggal 8 Mei 2019.

Sharma. 2011. Food Export Restrictions: Review of the 2007-2010 Experience and Considerations for Disciplining Restrictive Measures. FAO Commodity And Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 32.

Strutt A dan, Kym Anderson. 2000. Will trade liberalization harm the environment? The case of Indonesia to 2020. Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 203-232.

Wahyuniarti. D., 2014. Pengelompokan Komoditas Bahan Pangan Pokok Dengan Metode Analytical Hierarchy Process. Kementerian Perdagangan. Jakarta.

Warr, P. 2011. Food Security vs. Food Self-Suffiency: The Indonesian Case, Working Paper No.2011/04, The Australian National University.

Woldie dan Khalid. 2014. The Impact of Banning Export of Cereals in Response to Soaring Food Prices: Evidences from Ethiopia using the New GTAP African Database. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/38309349.

[WITS] World Integrated Trade Solution. 2019. www.wits.org.

[WTO] World Trade Organization. 2000. Export Subsidies-Food ASecurity or Food Dependency? Discussion Paper presented by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay (MERCOSUR), Chile, Bolivia and Costa Rica, G/AG/NG/W/38

[WTO] World Trade Organization. 2007. The Legal Texts: The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiation. Cambridge University Press, pp. 33-58.

[WTO] World Trade Organization. 2018. Export Prohibitions and Restrictions in the context of the Agreement on Agriculture.Capacity Building Workshop on the notification of quantitative restrictions Geneva, Switzerland 24 –26 April 2018.

[WTO] World Trade Organization. 2018. Impact Of Export Prohibitions Or Restrictions On Foodstuffs Purchased For Non-Commercial Humanitarian Purposes By The World Food Programme (WFP). JOB/AG/148.

[WTO] World Trade Organization. 2018. Overview Of Export Restrictions Communication From Japan; Israel; Korea, Republic Of; Singapore; Switzerland And The Separate Customs Territory Of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen And Matsu. JOB/AG/149